Medieval Art Test 2

rosesarered's version from 2018-03-19 07:08

Section: Insular and Books

Question Answer
Cernunnosconventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the "horned god" of Celtic polytheism. Cernunnos was a Celtic god of fertility, life, animals, wealth, and the underworld
Torqueneck ring (stiff/rigid metal necklace)
Interlace a decorative element found in medieval art. In interlace, bands or portions of other motifs are looped, braided, and knotted in complex geometric patterns, often to fill a space
Cloisonnéa style of enamel decoration in which the enamel is applied and fired in raised cells (as of soldered wires) on a usually metal background (decorative work in which enamel, glass, or gemstones are separated by strips of flattened wire placed edgeways on a metal backing)
Filigreedecorative metalwork - ornamental work of fine (typically gold or silver) wire formed into delicate tracery
Monasticism(or monkhood) is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work
Manuscriptbook written by hand
IlluminationAn illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations
Scriptoriuma room set apart for writing, especially one in a monastery where manuscripts were copied
Parchment/vellumused as durable writing surface in medieval times/fine parchment made originally from the skin of a calf
RulingLines were ruled on the pages of medieval manuscripts as a guide for the script
Folioan individual leaf of paper or parchment, numbered on the recto or front side only, occurring either loose as one of a series or forming part of a bound volume
Rubricsa word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in red ink for emphasis. The word derives from the Latin: rubrica, meaning red ochre or red chalk, and originates in Medieval illuminated manuscripts from the 13th century or earlier
Insularfrom an island/ignorant of or uninterested in cultures, ideas, or peoples outside one's own experience
Codexancient manuscript text in book form - a manuscript volume, usually of an ancient classic or the Scriptures
MiniatureTrue miniature art or painting in little is a genre that focuses on art (especially painting, engraving and sculpture) with a long history that dates back to the scribes of the medieval ages
Marginaliamarks made in the margin of a book or document
Bordertext in illuminated manuscripts is supplemented with borders (marginalia), initials, and miniature illustrations
Carpet pagea characteristic feature of Insular illuminated manuscripts. They are pages of mainly geometrical ornamentation, which may include repeated animal forms, typically placed at the beginning of each of the four Gospels in Gospel Books
Calligraphydecorative handwriting or lettering
Evangelist symbolsMatthew: winged man/angel, Mark: winged lion, Luke: winged ox, John: eagle
Triskeliona Celtic symbol consisting of three legs or lines radiating from a center
Oghaman early medieval alphabet consisting of twenty characters formed by parallel strokes on either side of or across a continuous line
Model booksbooks that travel or are the authority of what comes after (dream is happening at top of psalters)
Gospelthe record of Jesus’ life and teaching in the first book of the New Testament
Psalma sacred song or hymn, in particular any of those contained in the biblical Book of Psalms and used in Christian and Jewish worship
Augustine of Canterbury a Catholic Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the Catholic Church in England
Runes the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets
beehive hut the secular 'beehive' shaped huts in which the monks of Ireland, Scotland and parts of England lived
high crossa free-standing Christian cross made of stone and often richly decorated
Granulationa jewellery manufacturing technique whereby a surface is covered in spherules or granules of precious metal
Repoussémetalwork, hammered into relief from the reverse side
Zoomorphmorphing zoological things - 1. having the form of an animal. 2. of, relating to, or being a deity conceived of in animal form or with animal attributes
transverse archesa supporting arch or rib that runs across a vault from side to side,

Section: Carolingian/Ottonian

Question Answer
Charlemagneor Charles the Great, was king of the Franks, 768-814, and emperor of the West, 800-814. He founded the Holy Roman Empire (united western and central Europe), stimulated European economic and political life, and fostered the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance
Holy Roman EmpireA major political institution in Europe that lasted from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries. It was loosely organized and modeled somewhat on the ancient Roman Empire. It included great amounts of territory in the central and western parts of Europe. Charlemagne was its first emperor
Renovatio romani imperii"Renovation of Imperial Rome" On Christmas day 800 Charlemagne (768-814) was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III. The ceremony took place at St. Peter's in Rome. The imperial seal proclaimed the importance of the event with the motto: Renovatio Romani Imperii,
Itinerant Kingshipthe form of government in which a king carries out all the administrative functions and symbolic representations of governing by periodically or constantly travelling throughout the areas of his dominion
Stave churcha church whose walls were constructed of upright planks or staves (vertical wooden planks)
Cappella palatinaroyal chapel of Palazzo Reale
“window of appearance”kings had to show themselves to their subjects, perform public ceremonies but generally preferred to keep their distance. A solution was the use of the window of appearance let into the façade of the palac
Spoliarepurposed building stone for new construction, or decorative sculpture reused in new monuments, is the result of an ancient and widespread practice whereby stone that has been quarried, cut, and used in a built structure, is carried away to be used elsewhere
Gallery any covered passage that is open at one side/a narrow balcony or platform running the length of a wall
Westworkformal fortified front of a castle, two tall towers as intimidation factor
Column/engageda column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wall
Column/pierPiers are used to give a structure asthetic beauty mainly and they are not used to support any horizontal members such as beams unlike columns. Columns are used to give support to beams and slabs - an upright support for a structure or superstructure such as an arch or bridge. Sections of structural walls between openings (bays) can function as piers
(pillar)/pilasteran architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. ... In contrast to a pilaster, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above
Carolingianrelating to the Frankish dynasty, founded by Charlemagne's father (Pepin III), that ruled in western Europe from 750 to 987
Minuscule/majusculetiny lettering/large lettering
Chiaroscurothe use of light and shadow to create the illusion of light from a specific source shining on the figures and objects in the painting
Reims School(remois style)
Maiestas dominiChrist in Majesty - the Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world, always seen frontally in the centre of the composition, and often flanked by other sacred figures, whose membership changes over time and according to the context
Renaissance“rebirth/reawakening” cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome
Cloistera covered walk in a convent, monastery, college, or cathedral, typically with a wall on one side and a colonnade open to a quadrangle on the other
Copy books/model books
Seven liberal artstrivium (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic), quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music
Triviumgrammar, rhetoric, dialectic
quadriviumgeometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music

Section: Islamic/Crusader

Question Answer
Islamthe religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah
Muslimfollower of the religion of Islam
Koran/Qur’anIslamic sacred book, religious text
MosqueMuslim place of worship
Ambulatorycontinuation of the aisled spaces on either side of the nave (central part of the church) around the apse (semicircular projection at the east end of the church) or chancel (east end of the church where the main altar stands) to form a continuous processional way
Circumambulationthe act of moving around a sacred object or idol
Sahna courtyard in Islamic architecture. Most traditional mosques have a large central sahn, which is surrounded by a riwaq or arcade on all sides
Minbara short flight of steps used as a platform by a preacher in a mosque
Mihraba niche in the wall of a mosque, at the point nearest to Mecca, toward which the congregation faces to pray
Minareta tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer
Ka’aba/kaabaa cube-shaped building in Mecca, the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine. Muslims turn in its direction when praying
Qiblathe direction of the Kaaba (the sacred building at Mecca), to which Muslims turn at prayer
Hypostyle hallinterior space whose roof rests on pillars or columns. The word means literally “under pillars,” and the design allows for the construction of large spaces—as in temples, palaces, or public buildings—without the need for arches
Arabesquean ornament or style that employs flower, foliage, or fruit and sometimes animal and figural outlines to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines
Aniconicno figural images used in representation
Maqsura1. Enclosure in a mosque, situated near the mihrab and minbar, defined by a metal or timber screen, used by a ruler for purposes of protection and status 2. Large domed room used for communal prayer
Jihadstruggle or fight against the enemies of Islam
Crusadea medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries
Mappa mundiany medieval European map of the world
Outremera general name used for the Crusader states
Ogive/ogeepointed arch/S-shaped line or molding
Horseshoe/the Moorish arch and the keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch of Moorish architecture. Horseshoe arches can take rounded, pointed or lobed form
Archa curved symmetrical structure spanning an opening and typically supporting the weight of a bridge, roof, or wall above it
Miradorbalcony - a turret or tower attached to a building and providing an extensive view
Muqarnas/stalactite vaulta form of ornamented vaulting in Islamic architecture, the "geometric subdivision of a squinch, or cupola, or corbel, into a large number of miniature squinches, producing a sort of cellular structure", sometimes also called a "honeycomb" vault/three--dimensional ornaments, common in the Islamic architecture
Hospitaller/Templara member of a charitable religious order, originally the Knights Hospitaler/member of the Knights Templar

Section: Five Pillars of Islam

Question Answer
1Recital of the creed “There is no God but God and Mohammed is His Prophet”
2Worship and Prayer after ritual washing in the direction of Mecca 5x per day *in a Mosque on Friday
3Completely abstain from food, drink, & sexual activity during daylight hours of Ramadan (9th month of the lunar calendar)
5Hadj – pilgrimage to Mecca

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