Medieval Art - Test 1

rosesarered's version from 2018-02-14 06:12


Question Answer
Verismrecognizing someone for what they’ve done (the artistic preference of contemporary everyday subject matter instead of the heroic or legendary in art and literature; it is a form of realism)
Linear perspective/atmospheric perspective“classical” painting, realistic colors, dimensional, perspective where the further away something is the smaller it is
Parentaliaa nine-day festival held in honor of family ancestors, beginning on 13 February
Apotheosisdeification (when a person is treated like a god) the elevation of someone to divine status
Numenevery thing and god has a “spirit”
Geniusevery person has a “spirit”
Cultus deorummeans “cult” or “care” of the gods (worship of the gods)
Mystery Cultsany cult that keeps its practices mysterious to anyone who hasn’t been invited to the cult
Circumambulationwalking around
Res Gestaedeeds/accomplishments, the things you’ve done in your life
Adventusmeans “arrival” (Advent is the four weeks before christmas)
Adlocutioaddress given by a general
Orationformal speech, especially one given on a ceremonial occasion
Liminal spacethreshold, place you’re supposed to walk through not just stand in
Archa curved symmetrical structure spanning an opening and typically supporting the weight of a bridge, roof, or wall above it
Barrel vaulta vault forming a half cylinder, covers a passageway of space
Groin vaultan intersection of two barrel vaults, covers a square of space
Second CommandmentYou shall have no other gods before me.
Synagogue (Torah niche)place of worship
Torah nichea recession in a wall used to hold a torah
Menorah & Ark of the Covenant
Syncretismthe combination of different religions - from emperor worship to Christianity -

Roman Temple

Question Answer
Engaged columnscolumns that stick out of the wall a little
Lintelhorizontal support
Pediment triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns
Cellacenter room
Basilica(cruciform, transept, aisle, apse, nave, clerestory, narthex, crossing, arcade, colonnade)
Cruciformbuilding shaped like a cross
Transept(in a cross-shaped church) either of the two parts forming the arms of the cross shape, projecting at right angles from the nave
Aisleside aisles on long sides of basilica on outside of nave
Apsewhere the most important person in the room is gonna sit, a large semicircular recess, arched or with a domed roof, typically at the eastern end, and usually containing the altar.
Navecentral rectangular shape of a basilica, central space
Clerestorywindows - the upper part of the nave, choir, and transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows. It is clear of the roofs of the aisles and admits light to the central parts of the building
Narthex“crying room” room where you enter before you go into the rest of the building, gathering point almost
Crossingwhere the nave and the transept join
Arcaderow of arches
Colonnadea row of columns supporting a roof, an entablature, or arcade
Triumphal archmonumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways
Mausoleuma building, especially a large and stately one, housing a tomb or tombs
Altar(table-like structure where religious rites are performed)
Ambulatorya place for walking, especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a church or monastery
Peristylecolumns that go all around the building
Foruma place, meeting, or medium where ideas and views on a particular issue can be exchanged
Podiumbase the temple sits up on
Catacomban underground cemetery consisting of a subterranean gallery with recesses for tombs, as constructed by the ancient Romans.
loculusrecess in an ancient catacomb or tomb, where a body or cinerary urn was placed
cubiculumbed room, small room carved out of the wall of a catacomb, used as mortuary chapels
pedimenttriangular wall space found over the narrow ends of buildings, popular in class temple plans
Monasterya building or buildings occupied by a community of monks living under religious vows
NaosThe inner chamber or sanctuary of a Greek or other ancient temple - inner area containing the statue of the god


Question Answer
Tetrarchone of four rulers
Tetrarchyrule of four people
Iconographyimmediately recognizable visual symbols
Iconoclasmagainst the use of icons, because they are made by human hands, but may be confused as idols
Aniconism/aniconicno figural images used in representation
Gregory the Great, “Images are the bibles for the illiterate.”Images serve as silent/visual storytellers for people who can’t read
Martyriuma place where the relics of a martyr are kept. 2. a church built above the tomb of a martyr or in honor of a martyr
Memoriaa place where you go to remember a martyr
Titulushouse churches were named after whoever owned the house
Baptisterypart of a church used for a baptism
Acanthus(leafy plant whose foliate form inspired classical ornamentation)
Pendentive & SquinchA squinch in architecture is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome. Another solution to this structural problem was provided by the pendentive
Ichthysacrostic for Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior in Greek letters, fish symbol
Chi rhoa monogram of chi (Χ) and rho (Ρ) as the first two letters of Greek Khristos Christ, used as a Christian symbol.
Oranta usually female figure standing with outstretched arms as if in prayer used in early Christian art as a symbol of the faithful dead
313Edict of Milan established official tolerance of Christians
Edict of Milanreligio licite - a letter signed by the Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. The letter was issued in 313, shortly after the end of the persecution of Christians by the emperor Diocletian
Council of NiceaCouncil of Nicea declares Orthodoxy
Cruciform halocross within or extending beyond a halo, usually only given to Jesus
TheotokosGod-bearer - Mother of God (used in the Eastern Orthodox Church as a title of the Virgin Mary)
SpoliaLatin word for spoils - taking an artwork from someone else, cutting it apart and using it as your own
Imago clipeatabust portrait of dead person that you put up above - meaning in Latin is "portrait on a round shield" - is a term in art usually used in reference to the images of ancestors, famous people or deceased on round shield
Codexancient manuscript text in book form - a manuscript volume, usually of an ancient classic or the Scriptures
Biblos“book” or “bible”
Gospelthe record of Jesus' life and teaching in the first four books of the New Testament
Manuscriptbook written by hand
Nike RebellionNika riots or Nika revolt, took place against Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople over the course of a week in AD 532. They were the most violent riots in the city's history, with nearly half Constantinople being burned or destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed
Neoplatonisma philosophical system, originated in the 3rd century a.d. by Plotinus, founded chiefly on Platonic doctrine and Eastern mysticism, with later influences from Christianity. It holds that all existence consists of emanations from the One with whom the soul may be reunited
PlotinusNeoplatonic philosopher - follows ideas of Plato
Pseudo-Dionysius the AreopagiteNeoplatonic philosopher - simplify!
4 apocalyptic beasts(evangelist figures)
Maiestas DominiLatin meaning of Christ in majesty or Christ in glory - Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world
Acheiropoietai (acheropita)image not made by human hands
Virgin Hodegetria(pointing Virgin) - the way shower
Virgin Eleousa(Virgin of compassion) - tenderness, showing mercy
Pantokratorruler of everything
horor vacuia fear or dislike of leaving empty spaces, especially in an artistic composition
Iconostasisa screen bearing icons, separating the sanctuary of many Eastern churches from the nave (a screen of icons)
ekphrasis (your book: ekphraseis)description of a work of art produced as a rhetorical exercise, often used in the adjectival form ekphrastic, is a vivid, often dramatic, verbal description of a visual work of art, either real or imagined
Mandorlaa pointed oval figure used as an architectural feature and as an aureole enclosing figures such as Jesus Christ or the Virgin Mary in medieval art
Cloisonnédecorative work in which enamel, glass, or gemstones are separated by strips of flattened wire placed edgeways on a metal backing
Cabochonpolished stones
Filigreedecorative metalwork - ornamental work of fine (typically gold or silver) wire formed into delicate tracery

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