Medicine and Public Health - Medicine & Treatment c1900 - present (1)

megrusson's version from 2015-05-24 12:50

Section 1

Question Answer
What was the life expectancy in 1901?47
What were the top 3 main causes of death in 1900?Tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhoea
What are the top 3 main causes of death today?Heart disease, cancer, stroke

Section 2

Question Answer
Who researched the first magic bullet?Paul Ehrlich
What was Ehrlich searching for a cure for?Syphilis
What is the definition of a 'magic bullet'?A chemical that would only target the disease causing microbe and not harm the rest of the body.
Who joined Ehrlich's research team in 1909?Dr Sahachiro Hata
What did Hata discover?The 606th compound they had tried had been dismissed, but was actually highly effective.
What was this magic bullet called?Salvarsan 606
Which two people's work did Ehrlich base his knowledge on?Koch (dyes stained specific microbes) and Behring (antitoxins only attacked disease microbes)
When was the second magic bullet found?1932
Who discovered the second magic bullet?Gerhard Domagk
What did Gerhard Domagk discover?That a particular red dye was effective against some cases of blood poisoning.
How did Domagk confirm his discoveries?His daughter pricked her finger and was dying from blood poisoning, so he risked testing the dye and it worked.
What did Domagk name his magic bullet?Prontosil
Why were magic bullets important?Many fatal infections and diseases could now be cured, and the pharmaceutical industry enabled these cures to be taken as pills.

Section 3

Question Answer
What chance discovery did Alexander Fleming make and when did this happen?In 1928 he noticed a fungal spore that had landed on a Petri dish of bacteria was killing the bacteria.
What was the fungus called?Penicillium notatum
In what year did Fleming publish his findings?1929
Why could Fleming not take his research any further?He was unable to get funding
Which two scientists working in Oxford wanted to develop Fleming's work?Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
In which year did Florey & Chain set up a team to develop penicillin?1939
When did Florey & Chain first test penicillin on a human?1941
Was the first penicillin test effective?At first it acted like a miracle drug, but due to the small amount available it soon ran out and the patient died.
Why was penicillin hard to mass produce?It had to be cultured on a broth in order to grow. Factories that could have helped were being used up for WWII.
Which country began to fund mass production of penicillin in 1941 and why?The USA, after they entered WWII.
Which method helped to purify penicillin on a bigger scale?Freeze-drying

Section 4

Question Answer
CARE OF THE SICK c1900-1948
In the 1900s, why did people wait until they were really ill to see a doctor?It was still very expensive, doctors were paid for every visit.
When was the Midwives Act introduced and why?1902, to ensure that all midwives were properly trained and registered
When was the National Insurance Act introduced and what did it do?1911, so that working men, their employers and the government all paid into a fund to cover doctors fees if a worker became ill.
What fraction of men who volunteered for the Boer War were turned away due to ill health?1/3
What were the acts passed between 1905-1911 called?Liberal government reforms
In what year was the Ministry of Health set up and why?1919, to give the government an overview of health care provision in the whole country.
How many children died from diphtheria in 1938, prompting the free vaccination programme?3,000

Section 5

Question Answer
When was the Beveridge report and what did it identify?1942, and identified that disease was a problem for the government to deal with
Who was the Minister of Health that oversaw the introduction of the NHS?Aneurin Bevan
When was the NHS introduced?1948
Why did Bevan face opposition from doctors?Doctors did not want to be organised by the government and were afraid they would be less well paid
How did evacuation prompt the introduction of the NHS?Many families in the countryside who took in city children were shocked at the poverty they had grown up in.
Who did the NHS benefit most?The poorest of society (mainly non-working women and children) who had previously had no access to free healthcare
When and why did Bevan resign?The introduction of prescription charges in 1951