Medicine and Public Health - Medicine & Treatment c1750 - c1900 (1)
What period covers 'the Industrial Revolution'? 1750-1900
What caused people to move to the towns? Machinery in agriculture meant there was less to do in the countryside, so many moved to work in the new factories.
Why was health so bad in these towns? Give 3 reasons. Poor ventilation in factories led to breathing problems / Accidents in factories from machinery / Housing was of poor quality, rooms were damp and poorly ventilated / Living conditions were cramped / Sewers ran into rivers which people drank from / Less access to fresh food
How was cholera spread? Passed on through contaminated water/food by the excrement of an infected person
What were the effects of cholera? Sickness and severe diarrhoea leading to dehydration, death often within 24 hours. 2/3 of sufferers died.
When did cholera first appear in Britain? 1831
Why did it spread so quickly? Through poor water quality of the Thames and contaminated water pumps
How was diphtheria spread? Through coughing and sneezing
What were the effects of diphtheria? Bleeding, paralysis, suffocation from a blocked throat. Mostly affected children.
How was smallpox spread? By touch or coughing and sneezing.
What were the effects of smallpox? Blisters filled with pus, leaving deep scarring. 1/3 of sufferers died.
How was tuberculosis spread? Through coughing and sneezing
What were the effects of TB? Coughing up blood, chest pains, severe weight loss. 1/2 of sufferers died.
How was typhoid spread? Through food/water contaminated by excrement of an infected person, or from food infected by flies.
What were the effects of typhoid? Headaches, fever, constipation and severe diarrhoea. 1/3 of sufferers died.
What was the miasma theory? Disease was caused by bad air filled with poisonous fumes from rotting matter.
What was spontaneous generation? Disease was caused by germs produced by rotting matter.
EDWARD JENNER AND VACCINATION
What was inoculation? Immunisation by placing pus from the same disease into the patient's body. They suffer from a mild version of the disease and then are immune.
Who promoted it? Lady Montagu in the 1700s, as she inoculated her children in 1721.
Why did inoculation not completely solve the problem of smallpox? Not everyone could afford it and it was not always effective or safe.
What did Jenner observe? That people who caught cowpox would never catch smallpox
What was the name and age of the boy he carried out tests on? James Phipps, who was 8 years old.
What was the name of milkmaid from which he took compox matter? Sarah Nelmes
In which year did Jenner's vaccination experiment take place? 1796
Who refused to publish Jenner's findings? The Royal Society, so he paid for publishing himself
With how much money was Jenner rewarded from the government? £10,000 in 1802 and £20,000 in 1807
Did Jenner understand the science behind his vaccinations? Not really - he just knew that it worked, which is why many didn't believe him at first.
In what year did the government make it compulsory to be vaccinated? 1852
Why did doctors oppose Jenner's work? Free vaccinations were given, meaning that doctors lost money as no-one paid for inoculations anymore.
In what year was compulsory vaccination really enforced (even though it had been passed previously)? 1872
In which year did the WHO announce the eradication of smallpox? 1979
Could Jenner's methods be applied to other infectious diseases? Not really, but this led a push to find vaccinations for other diseases.
THE GERM THEORY
What was Pasteur investigating when he discovered germs? The problem of liquids turning sour in the brewing industry
What did Pasteur observe and how? Unwanted small organisms through the use of more powerful microscopes
What did he discover that killed the bacteria? Heating the liquid
In what year did Pasteur publish the Germ Theory? 1861
What idea did the Germ Theory prove wrong? Spontaneous generation
What experiment did Pasteur carry out to disprove spontaneous generation? The swan-necked flask, which showed that in a sealed container (or where germs could not reach) decay did not occur.
Who was the German doctor who read Pasteur's work? Robert Koch
In what year did Koch investigate the link between bacteria and disease? 1875
What specific microbe did Koch first identify? Anthrax in sheep
In which year did Pasteur's team investigate chicken cholera? 1879
What chance discovery was made with chicken cholera? A culture of the bacteria was accidentally left and when it was used it had become a weakened version which did not harm the chickens.
In which year did Koch identify the microbe causing TB? 1882
Which microbe did Koch identify in 1883? Those causing cholera
Why did Koch use chemical dyes? He found that they could target specific microbes so that they could be studied more easily.
In both Pasteur and Koch's cases, why did working with a team help? More likely to receive funding, able to afford expensive technology, checked one another's work and had different skills and abilities
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