Medicine and Public Health - Medicine & Treatment c1350 - c1750

megrusson's version from 2015-05-23 12:21

Section 1

Question Answer
What was the average life expectancy in the 1350s?30 years
What was the rate of infant mortality?1 in 5
What are the four humours of the body?Blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile
What else linked to each humour?The seasons, and the sensations of hot, wet, dry and cold
Who came up with the idea of the Theory of Opposites?Galen
What was Galen's most popular treatment?Bloodletting

Section 2

Question Answer
What fraction of the European population died as a result?1/3
If you caught the bubonic plague, what was your chance of death?2/3 chance of dying
What were flagellants?Those who thought that God was punishing them with the plague, so they whipped themselves to show how sorry they were.
What were other ideas of causes of plague? Name 3.1) Astrology, unusual positioning of the planets 2) Bad air (miasma) 3) The activities of outsiders - witches and Jews took a lot of the blame.
Were their treatments for the plague effective?Barely, as the cause was not understood at all so they had no way of producing effective treatment.

Section 3

Question Answer
In which century were medical schools set up at universities?12th century
Were Galen's ideas still popular?Definitely. They were taught as 100% fact and no-one dared try and prove him wrong until the Renaissance.
What would a trained physician do?Diagnose you by your urine and astrological info. Would treat based on Galen, bloodletting, and would be male. (No female physicians). However, they were expensive.
What would an apothecary do?Mix ingredients to produce medicines and ointments for a small price. Cheaper than physicians and usually male.
What would a barber-surgeon do?No training, tried basic surgery but success rate was poor as no anaesthetics/antiseptics. Practiced bloodletting and pulling out teeth. Will also cut your hair.
What would a hospital do?Cared and looked after you, but little chance of being cured. Mostly for the elderly or for specific illnesses like leprosy.
What would a housewife-physician do?Knew traditional remedies, dealt with broken bones and childbirth. Usually the lady of the manor who treated servants and families living on her land.
Did women have any prominence?Women were not allowed to attend universities. Most interested in medicine became midwives.

Section 4

Question Answer
In what year was the Royal Society set up and why?1660, by educated people who wished to discuss new ideas
In which year did Vesalius publish his book?1543
What was it called and what did it contain?"The Fabric of the Human Body", and contained drawings of muscles, nerves, organs and bones based on dissections.
What was the main impact of Vesalius' work?He was the first person to really prove Galen wrong.
Give one way in which Vesalius proved Galen wrong.No holes in the septum in the heart / No 'lobes' in the liver / Humans' jaw was one bone, not two
When & where was the printing press invented and why was it important?mid-15th century, Germany, and allowed printed copies of Vesalius' work to be produced cheaply
In what year did William Harvey publish his book?1628
What was it called & what did it contain?"The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals", describing his experiments explaining how heart works as a pump circulating blood
Give one way in which Harvey proved Galen wrong.Veins only carry blood, not a mixture of blood and air / Blood is not used up but circulated repeatedly
What else did Harvey discover?That tiny blood vessels exist between arteries and veins, but he couldn't prove he had discovered capillaries until much later (microscopes).
How did technology help Renaissance discoveries?Mechanisms in pumps and clocks helped people to see the body as a machine.
Was bacteria discovered?Yes, by a Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek when he developed better microscope lenses - he called them "animalcules" but did not investigate further.
Why were the findings of Harvey and Vesalius not instantly effective?People were angry that their 'knowledge' was actually wrong and their work on anatomy and physiology did not actually help treatment or prevention of illness.
What were the Inquisition and what famous person did they persecute?A Catholic organisation created to root out unorthodox beliefs. They persecuted Galileo Galilei in 1633.
What was the explanation for bacteria?Spontaneous generation

Section 5

Question Answer
When was the second plague epidemic in London?1665
Had treatments developed for the plague?Not at all - the treatments were similar to those used 3 centuries ago! This displays the sheer lack of development.
Why did people go to King Charles II for help?They believed his touch could cure them of tuberculosis. He touched 8,000 sufferers in one year.
Did the authority of the Catholic Church decrease?Yes, which allowed the Renaissance findings to occur and the Reformation of the Church to take place.
What event sterilised large parts of London, killing plague bacteria?The Great Fire of London, 1666