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Medical Terminology and Biochemistry

rename
csmoot85's version from 2015-06-02 21:47

Section 1

Question Answer
ANTE-before
ANTI-against
ECTO-outside
ENDO-within
HYPER-above, beyond, excessive
HYPO-below, under, deficient
INTER-between
INTRA-within
PARA-beside
PERI-around
PER-through
PRE-before
PRO-before
SUPER-above, beyond
SUPRA-above, beyond
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
-POIESISformation
-PTOSISprolapse, drooping
-PTYSISspitting
-RRHAGIAbursting forth
-RRHAGEbursting forth
-RRHAPHYsuture
-RRHEAflow
-RRHEXISrupture
-SCOPEinstrument
-SCOPYto view
-TOMEinstrument to cut
-TOMYincision
-TRIPSYcrushing
-TROPHYnourishment
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
-ALGIApain
-DYNIApain
-EMIAblood condition
-GENICproducing, forming
-IAcondition, disease
-ITISinflammation
-MALACIAsoftening
-MEGALYenlargement
-OMAtumor, mass
-OSIScondition
-PATHYdisease
-PENIAdeficiency
-RRHEAflow, discharge
-RRHAGEbursting forth
-RRHAGIAbursting forth
-SCLEROSIShardening
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
-CENTESISsurgical puncture to remove fluid for analysis
-ECTOMYsurgical removal
-GRAPHYprocess of recording
-LYSISseparation, breakdown, destruction
-OPSYview of, vision
-PLASTYsurgical repair
-SCOPYprocess of visual examination
-STOMYopening
-TOMYincision, cutting
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
-AC, -IACcardiac
-AL, -EAL, -IALcongenital
-ARventricular
-ARYpulmonary
-IC, -ICALchronic
-OUSmucous
memorize

Section 6

Question Answer
cardiacpertaining to the heart
congenitalpertaining to conditions present at birth
ventricularpertaining to ventricles of the heart or brain
pulmonarypertaining to lungs
chronicpertaining to time
mucouspertaining to mucus
memorize

Section 7

Question Answer
A- (before consonant)no, not, without
AN- (before vowel)no, not, without
AB-away from
AD-toward, near
ANA-up, apart
ANTE-before, forward
ANTI-against
AUTO-self, own
BI-two, both
CO- (before h or a vowel)with, together
COL- (before l)with, together
COM- (before b,m, or p)with, together
CON-with, together
COR- (before r)with, together
DE-down, lack of
DIA-through, complete
DIS-apart, away from
DYS-bad, painful
E-out
EC-, ECTO-outer, outside
EN-in
ENDO-within, inner
EPI-above, upon
EX-out
EXTRA-outside of
HEMI-half
HYPER-excessive, above
HYPO-below, deficient
IN-in, into
INFRA-below, beneath
INTER-between
INTRA-within
MACRO-large
MAL-bad
META-change, beyond
MICRO-small
NEO-new
PAN-all
PARA-near, along the side of
PERI-surrounding
POLY-many, much
POST-after, behind
PRE-before
PRO-before, forward
PROS-before, forward
PSEUDO-false
RE-back, again
RETRO-behind, backward
SUB-beneath, less than
SUPRA-above, upper
SYN-with, together
SYM- (before b, p, and m)same
TRANS-across, through
TRI-three
ULTRA-beyond
UNI-one
memorize

Section 8

Question Answer
Plural of ‘a’‘ae’
Plural of ‘ax’‘aces’ or ‘axes’
Plural of ‘en’‘ina’
Plural of ‘is’‘es’ or ‘a’
Plural of ‘ix’‘ices’
Plural of ‘nx’‘ges’
Plural of ‘on’ and ‘um’‘a’
Plural of ‘us’‘i’
Plural of ‘y’‘ies’
memorize

Section 9

Question Answer
ESTHESI/Ofeeling, sensation
CARDI/Oheart
CHIR/Ohand
DENT/Otooth
DERMAT/Oskin
CRIN/Osecrete
DEM/Opeople
GASTR/Ostomach
ENTER/Ointestine
GERONT/Oold age
GYNEC/Ofemale
HEMAT/Oblood
IMMUN/Oprotected
INTERN/Owithin, inner
NAT/Obirth
NEPHR/Okidney
memorize

 

Question Answer
NEUR/Onerve
OBSTETR/Omidwife
ONC/Otumor
OPHTHALM/Oeye
OPT/Oeye, vision
ORTH/Ostraight, normal
OSTE/Obone
OT/Oear
RHIN/Onose
LARYNG/Olarynx, throat
PATH/Odisease, suffering
PED/O, PEDI/Afoot
PROCT/Oanus, rectum
PSYCH/Omind
UR/Ourine, urinary organs
memorize

Section 10

Question Answer
recumbent position, akasupine position
lateral recumbent positionlying on your side
supine/prone positionlying down in a horizontal position
supine positionlying on the back, face upward
prone positionlying on the belly, face down
anatomical positionstanding upright, facing straight ahead
superiorup, above
inferiordown, below
“toward the head”superior
“toward the feet”inferior
memorize

 

Question Answer
cephalicpertaining to the head
caudalpertaining to the tail
anteriorfront
posteriorback
ventraltoward the belly
dorsaltoward the back
medialmiddle
lateralto the side
proximalcloser
distalfarther
a superficial woundexternal wound
a deep woundinternal wound
memorize

 

Question Answer
relative locations of organs in the bodyplanes
frontal (coronal) planedivides body vertically, into anterior and posterior portions
sagittal planedivides body vertically into right and left parts
midsagittal planedivides body into two mirror images
transverse (cross-sectional) planedivides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts
cavityhollow place or space within the body
memorize

Section 11

Question Answer
axial portion is the...head, neck and torso or trunk
appendicular portion is the...appendages of the body
extremities are also known aslimbs
axial portion contains two major cavitiesdorsal and ventral
the dorsal cavity is subdivided intocranial and spinal
cranial cavity contains thebrain
spinal cavity contains thevertebral canal
cervical vertebrae located atC1 to C7
thoracic vertebrae located atT1 to T12
lumbar vertebrae located atL1 to L5
sacral vertebrae located atS1 to S5
neckcervical
chestthoracic
loinlumbar
lower backsacral
tailbonecoccyx
ventral cavity is subdivided intothoracic and abdominal
abdominopelvic cavity containsstomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen
memorize

Section 12

Question Answer
foreheadfrontal
eyeorbital
skullcranial
facefacial
headcephalic
neckcervical
armpitaxillary
armbrachial
front of elbowantecubital
forearmantibrachial
wristcarpal
fingersdigital, phalangeal
thighfemoral
legcrural
footpedal
toesdigital
ankletarsal
pubicpubic
memorize

 

Question Answer
chestthoracic
abdomenabdominal
pelvispelvic
groininguinal
navelumbilical
breastmammary
mouthoral
nosenasal
cheekbuccal
skulloccipital
backdorsal
loinlumbar
sacralsacral
buttockgluteal
back of kneepopliteal
heel of footcalcaneal
sole of footplantar
memorize

Section 13

Question Answer
epigastricregion located above the umbilical region
umbilicalmiddle region that contains the umbilicus or belly button
hypogastriclower middle region beneath the navel between the right and left iliac regions
right hypochondriacright upper lateral abdominal region that contains the lower ribs
left hypochondriacleft upper lateral abdominal region that contains the lower ribs
right iliacright pelvic region
left iliacleft pelvic region
left lumbarleft loin region even with the umbilical region
right lumbarright loin region even with the umbilical region
memorize

Section 14

Question Answer
the abdominal cavity is divided byquadrants
midlinedivides right and left quadrant
midline quadrantaorta, pancreas, small intestine, bladder, spine
right upper quadrant (RUQ)gallbladder, duodenum, head of pancreas, right kidney and adrenal, hepatic flexure of colon, part of ascending colon, traverse colon
right lower quadrant (RLQ)parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter
left upper quadrant (LUQ)stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines
left lower quadrant (LLQ)part of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, left ovary and tube, left ureter, left spermatic cord
parietalpertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceralpertaining to the internal organs
inversionturning inward or inside out
eversionturning outward
palmarpertaining to the palm of the hand
plantarpertaining to the sole of the foot
memorize

Section 15

Question Answer
abdominalportion of trunk below the diaphragm
anatomical positionbody standing upright, face directed forward, arms at sides, palms and toes turned forward
antebrachialforearm
anteriorfront
appendicularappendages, extremities
armupper limb between shoulder and elbow
axialhead, neck and torso
axillaryarmpit area
brachialarm
buccalinner surfaces of cheeks
carpalwrist
caudaltail
celiacabdomen
cephalichead
cervicalneck
coronaldivides body vertically, into anterior and posterior portions
costalribs
cranialskull
cruralleg
cubitalelbow or forearm
cutaneousskin
deepbelow the surfaces of the body
digitalfingers, toes
distalaway from point of origin
dorsalback
epigrasticabove the stomach
extremitieslimbs
femoralthigh
forearmbetween elbow and wrist
frontalforehead
glutealbuttock groin, between abdomen and thigh
hypochondriumbelow the cartilage of the ribs
hypogastricbelow the stomach
iliachip bone
inferiortoward the feet
inguinalgroin
lateralside, away from midline
legbetween knee and ankle
lumbarlower back and side
mammarybreasts
medialmiddle, toward midline
midsagittal planedivides the body in its exact median, into two near mirror images
occipitalback of lower skull
ophthalmiceyes
oralmouth
orbitalbony cavity containing eyeball
palmarpalm
patellarknee
pectoralchest
pedalfoot
pelviclower portion of torso
perinealbetween anus and genitals
planessections of body space
plantarsole of foot
poplitealbehind knee
posteriorback
pronelying on belly
proximalnear point of origin
quadrantsone of four sections in the abdominopelvic area
recumbentlying on back , face up
sacralbase of spine
sagittal planedivides the body vertically, right and left
superficialexternal, close to the surface of the body
supinelying on back, face up
supraclaviclearea above clavicle
tarsalankle
temporalside of skull
thoracicchest
transverse planedivides the body horizontally, into superior and inferior parts
umbilicalnavel
ventraltoward belly
volarpalm or sole
zygomaticcheek
memorize

Section 16

Question Answer
anatomyshape and structure of the body and its parts
physiologyhow each body part functions and how all body parts form the complete body
cellssmallest and basic structural units of the body
tissuesa group of similar cells working together to perform a function
organbody structures composed of tissues that perform a specific function
organ systemsa collection of body structures that function together
memorize

 

Question Answer
function of movement is performed bymuscular system
secretion is performed byendocrine system
anabolismprocess in which the body digests food to construct muscle, deposit fat and store carbs for energy
catabolismprocess in which the body breaks down complex substances into smaller components
metabolismthe sum of the chemical reactions of anabolism and catabolism
memorize

 

Question Answer
carbohydratesthe main source of energy
glucosewhat carbohydrates are broken down and converted into
glycogenglucose stored in the muscles and liver
lipidsfats used by the body as a form of long term energy storage
cholesterol and triglyceridestypes of lipids
proteinthird major nutrient and building block of the body
amino acidsdietary protein that has been broken down
minerals and trace elementschemical compounds present in food that do not contain calories
vitaminsorganic compounds that function as coenzymes
caloriea measure of energy contained in food
kilocalorieequals 1000 calories
memorize

 

Question Answer
homeostasismaintenance of the pH range in the body and blood
pH scaleused to measure how acidic or alkaline something is
pHpower of hydrogen, a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
acida substance that will dissolve in water to form positively charged ions of hydrogen and negatively charged ions of another element
basealkali, when dissolved in water, will form negatively charged ions of hydroxide and positively charged ions of a metal
neutralizecombines molecules of an acid or base by adding the other to it
intracellular fluidfluids within the cells
extracellular fluidfluids between the cells
buffer systemslows or increases production of hydrogen or hydroxide when a change in the pH of fluids is detected
memorize

 

Question Answer
bacteriasingle-celled microorganisms which can cause disease
florabacteria living on the skin and in the mucosal linings
normal or resident florabacteria that help with digestion of food and production of vitamin K
transient florabacteria that live temporarily in the body until they’re eliminated
pathogensmicroorganisms that cause disease and illness
infectioninfestation with pathogens
virusesmicroorganisms smaller than bacteria which rely on living cells to grow and reproduce
fungisingle-cell or multicellular organisms that can reproduce both sexually and asexually
protozoasingle-celled microscopic eukaryotes that live in water and damp areas
rickettsiaparasitic bacteria that are dependent on eukaryotic host cells
microbiologythe field of science dedicated to the study of organisms
peptidoglycan layerprovides structural support to cell wall of bacterial pathogens
coccispherical bacteria
bacillirodlike bacteria
spirillaspiral-shaped bacteria
chain of infectionseries of events or circumstances that’s necessary for infection to occur
nosocomialtype of infection occurring inside a hospital
reservoiranything in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies
portal of exitwhere the biological agent or pathogen leaves the host to enter another host and cause disease or infection
mode of transmissionhow the biological agent or pathogen travels to the host
portal of entrythe area in which a microorganism enters the body
cleansingusing water, detergent and a scrubbing instrument
disinfectioncleansing with common chemicals
sterilizationfully eliminating infectious organisms
standard precautionsspecific sanitation guidelines for health care workers
reverse isolationprotective isolation for patients with weakened immune systems
immuno-compromisedinability to fight of common bacteria
memorize

 

Question Answer
natural immunitytype of immunity you are born with
acquired immunityimmunity you acquire and are not born with
passive acquired immunityindividual receives antibodies from external sources such as breastfeeding or injection of purified antibodies
vaccinationa form of active acquired immunity that stimulate the individual to develop their own immune response
autoimmunitywhen the immune system attacks itself
hypersensitivitywhen the immune system causes an allergic reaction
allergenan antigen which an individual is allergic to
mast cellscells that secrete histamine during an allergic reaction
histaminethe substance secreted by mast cells during an allergic reaction
anaphylaxisseverest form of hypersensitivity reaction
epinephrineadrenaline given to an individual during anaphylaxis to prevent death
memorize