First in Order of Draw, yellow tube, minimizes chance of microbial contamination
Plain (Non Additive) Tube
Second in Order of Draw, red tube, prevents contamination by additives in other tubes
Third in Order of Draw, light blue tube, prevents tissue thromboplastin contamination, Citrate
Serum Separator Gel Tube
Fourth in Order of Draw, red and gray rubber;gold plastic, Silica to activate clotting in tube
Plasma Tubes and Plasma Separator Gel Tubes
Fifth in Order of Draw, green and light green top, Heparin which affects coagulation tests and interferes in collection of serum specimens
Sixth in Order of Draw, lavender;white,EDTA additive
Last in Order of Draw, Gray, Sodium fluoride and potassium oxalate levels respectively
What causes hematomas and how can it be avoided?
Small/fragile vein, needle penetrates all the way through the vein, needle is only partly inserted into the vein, excessive or blind probing, needle is removed while tourniquet is still on, pressure is not adequately applied after venipuncture. To avoid a hematoma, make sure the needle fully penetrates the vein
What causes hemoconcentration and how can it be avoided?
Leaving the tourniquet on too long can result in hemoconcentration, to avoid hemoconcentration release the tourniquet in one minute
What causes hemolysis and how can it be avoided?
Hemolysis can be causes by a needle gauge smaller than 23. To avoid hemolysis, use a needle that has a gauge of 21-22, using the proper phlebotomy method and choose a good vein
How do you properly use a tourniquet?
Apply the tourniquet 3-4 fingers above the puncture site, only leave the tourniquet on for one minute, remove tourniquet before needle, don't tie the tourniquet too loosely or too tightly
How do you properly introduce yourself to a patient?
State your name, explain the procedure and why you will be performing it if needed
What is Post Exposure Prophylaxis
Short-term antiretroviral treatment to reduce the likelihood of HIV infection after potential exposure, either occupationally or through sexual intercourse
What are the different types of Anemia?
Anemia caused by blood loss. Anemia caused by decreased or faulty red blood cell production. Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells
What is Vitamin K?
It helps the blood to clot and prevents excessive bleeding
Why do we invert tubes?
To mix and ensure adequate anticoagulation of the specimen.
How do you do a blood smear?
1. Using the stopper piercer, place a drop of blood, about 2 mm in diameter approximately inch from the frosted area of the slide. 2. Place the slide on a flat surface, and hold the narrow side of the nonfrosted edge between your left thumb and forefinger. 3. With your right hand, place the smooth clean edge of a second (spreader) slide on the specimen slide, just in front of the blood drop. 4. Hold the spreader slide at a 30 angle, and draw it back against the drop of blood. 5. Allow the blood to spread almost to the edges of the slide. 6. Push the spread forward with one light, smooth, and fluid motion. A thin film of blood in the shape of a bullet with a feathered edge will remain on the slide. 7. Label the frosted edge with patient name, ID# and date. 8. Allow the blood film to air-dry completely before staining. (Do not blow to dry. The moisture from your breath will cause RBC artifact.)
What do red blood cells do?
Red cells contain a special protein called hemoglobin, which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled
What do white blood cells do?
White blood cells protect the body from infection
What do platelets do?
Platelets help the blood clotting process (or coagulation) by gathering at the site of an injury, sticking to the lining of the injured blood vessel, and forming a platform on which blood coagulation can occur
How do you stimulate a vein?
Massage the arm from wrist to elbow, tap the site with the index and second fingers, apply a warm/damp washcloth to the site for 5 minutes, lower the arm to allow the veins to fill
How to convert from F to C
T(°C) = (T(°F) - 32) × 5/9
What are Dermatophytes?
Fungi that require keratin for growth. These fungi can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair, and nails
What stain is used for TB?
It does not retain any bacteriological stain due to high lipid content in its wall, hence Ziehl-Neelsen staining, or acid-fast staining, is used
What colors are gram positive and negative?
Gram-positive bacteria have a thick mesh-like cell wall made of peptidoglycan (50–90% of cell envelope), and as a result are stained purple by crystal violet, whereas gram-negative bacteria have a thinner layer (10% of cell envelope), so do not retain the purple stain and are counter-stained pink by safranin.
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