Medical Ethics Exam One Chart One

achapss's version from 2017-10-02 20:54


Question Answer
Normative Claimhow it ought to be
Descriptive Claimhow it is
What are the three categories of philosophy?metaphysics, epistemology, ethics
Ethicswhat can I do
Metaphysicswhat is there?
Epistemologywhat can I know?, realm of knowledge of what is valid ex:religious leaders seem to be in an epistemic position about what is right and moral because they are close to god and know what he commands
What are the three categories of ethics?meta, normative and applied
normative vs descriptive claimsnormative is how people ought to behave, and descriptive is how people think they should behave
Meta Ethicsthe nature of ethics and moral reasoning, whether something is normative or not, whether we always act out of self interest etc.
Normative Ethicsdevelopment of moral frameworks to apply to problems as utilitarianism and kant
Applied Ethicstaking these moral frameworks as utilitarianism or egalitarianism and applying them to real world situations, a "testing ground" for moral revision
Reflective Equilibriumthe constant reflection and strive for consistency within moral theories and principles and judgement, "do I revise my moral judgement"
Moralitygiving reason to action not just acting arbitrarily
Descriptive Cultural Relativismdifferent cultures have different moral codes of which only apply to them and must be respected
Normative Cultural Relativismeach of us ought to follow our own culture's moral code, no one cultures moral code is more true or better than another (therefore there is no universal moral standard), we all have a moral duty to respect the existence of other cultures moral code
Validconclusion follows the premises in an argument
Soundthe premises are true
Divine Commandment Theorywhat god says is right and good because he says so --> this makes gods commandments arbitrary because it could potentially mean absolutely anything with no reasoning or backup
Supernatural Watcher Hypothesisthe existence of the supernatural agent (god) inhibits antisocial activity, injecting religion into morality prompts the expansion of groups
Doctrine of omnibenevolencegod is praiseworthy and all good has moral standard and reason for his commandments
Naturalistic Fallacyan is --> ought claim that does not follow or have an explanation as to why it ought to be
What is relative moral theory vs normative moral theory?relative moral theory is subjective there is not moral standard to go by, normative moral theory is objective there is an objective moral standard all must follow
What are examples of objective moral theory?consequentialism and deontology
What is consequentialism and what does it mean?utilitarianism, means that the objective moral standard is formed in the interest of all through a utility calculus based on pleasure over pain to create the highest possible utility in a society minimizing overall pain good = right
What does utilitarianism say about charity?it does not exist, if to give is the right thing it means that it maximizes the most utility therefore it must be done
Why is utilitarianism an inclusive moral theory?it includes anything at all that can experience pleasure and pain and preferences
Act Utilitarianeach action should be entered into a utility calculus to maximize potential utility, rules inhibit max utility
Rule Utilitarianbelieves that a moral agent shouldn't have to sit and analyze every action with a utility calculus, they put rules that max utility in place to ensure consistent utility
Hedonismthe belief that pleasure is the most valuable and highest good and the admin human life
What is the argument against hedonistic utilitarianism?this debases humans to basal beings that only seek pleasure and nothing else
What was Mill's theory in Utilitarianism?it is better to be socrates than a pig quote..., higher and lower pleasures, higher pleasures include more complex and intellectual pleasures as education and arts etc, and lower pleasures are sensual pleasures
What are the criticisms of Utilitarianism?hedonism is false, it poses an issue of scapegoats relevant to organ donation, it is too demanding
Experience Machineutilitarianism hypothetical experiment, if you were to be hooked up to a machine that shows you your perfect life would you do it? hedonists would because they only desire pleasure, most people wouldn't because they know that it is not real and that there are other important things in life than pleasure
What would an act vs rule utilitarian say about the issues with organ distribution and scape goats?act = supports it because it maximizes utility for the majority if you do not agree with this then you are not a utilitarian and believe in a moral standard rule= will believe it is a good thing if there is a rule that exclaims that this maximizes the greatest utility
What would a utilitarian say if someone claimed that following utilitarianism was too demanding and that a moral standard is necessary?they would claim that moral obligation is too much and too heavy to deal with


Question Answer
Hypothetical Imperativesomething that Kant recognizes, dependent solely on ones contingent desires, how to fulfill them, If I want X I ought to do Y
Categorical Imperativeoverarching principle of deontology, consists of two different formulations for deriving moral code based on duty
Logical Willingapplied to the first formulation of Kant's categorical imperative, if something has a logical contradiction it can not be logically willed ex: stealing, if everyone stole all of the time there would not be such thing as stealing it would be the norm the concept is null
Rational Willingapplied to the first formulation of Kant's categorical imperative, you can not will a maxim if it would create a world that you would not like to live in ex= maxim --> I will not participate in charitable giving, therefore nobody would have to, could you live in the world like this
Maxima stament guiding a rule of conduct
What does it mean to say that deontology is a law of absolutionism?the law applies to everyone at all times with absolutely no exceptions, no lying for any reason
What are the criticisms of absolutionism?nazi thought experiment and the fact that there are conflicting duties
Kant Principlismall should be held to the same moral standard
Kant respect for personspeople are rational beings and rationality is the only thing of intrinsic moral value
what does it mean to treat someone as an end and never only as a means?to respect their autonomy and rationality and never to lie to them and use them
Gold vs Siver rulegold = treat others the way you would treat yourself silver= treat others the way they want to be treated
What are the criticisms of Kant?all duties are absolute therefore it can not help us solve conflicts of duty (hiding your friend), discounts the possibility of moral emotions as motive including sympathy and guilt, simply ignores the consequences of all actions
Lying Promiselying to someone claiming that you will pay them back knowing that you will not is using them as a means and not as an end, this strips them of their rationality, lacks their consent, and violates their autonomy altogether
What is the difference between a principle and a rule?a principle is a broad guideline of which rules are derived from, a rule is a content specific designation that must be followed
What is the georgetown mantra?the four principles of bioethics , not a unified theory many principles conflict with each other
What are the four principles of bioethics?respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice
Prima Facie vs all things considered obligationsPrima facie = at face value, known by our intuition how we should act towards obligations, all things considered = when things are looked at with more than just duty to be considered
Autonomy in bioethicsan agent must be able to act with self determination via liberty and agency, on their own beliefs and desires without coercion
Harm PrincipleMill Utilitarian idea towards autonomy, the state may restrict someones autonomy if they are a cause of harm to others, maximizes utility
nonmaleficenceabove all do no harm, passive, don't intervene if it will do more harm than good
Beneficencemoral obligation to ensure the best possible outcome, active, remove harm
Fiduciary Dutyresponsibility to act in the best interest of another party, there is a difference between having someones best interest at heart and moral obligation
Just in Liberal Egalitarianism vs LibertarianismLE = inequality due to contingencies of birth are unjust must redistribute inequalities are only fair if the worst off is better off or if a result of merit based open competition, L = property rights and endowment, redistribution is not allowed and unjust, birth contingency inequality is unfortunate but not unjust
Minimal StateLibertarian idea that redistribution and taxation by the state is unjust unless used for protection of property rights including fraud, jail, theft
Positive Rightsreceive some beneficial good or service
Negative Rightsnot to be harmed, protection from fraud or murder etc
What kind of right is healthcarepositive


Question Answer
What are the premises for determining a standard minimum of health care according to daniels and what system is it?liberal egalitarianism, efficacy of treatment and necessity to maximize opportunity and avoid waste of resources
Strong Equal Action PrincipleLiberal Egal principle that says everyone is entitled to the same amount of healthcare if there is a base line, no more no less
One Tier Systemeveryone has the same basic level of health care, gives potential for opportunity for all ex: Canada
Two Tier Systemeveryone is guaranteed the same level of healthcare but those that have the resources to receive more and choose to may, may undermine the public ex: UK
Engelhardt Liberalarian take on Healthcaretaxation to provide healthcare counts as coercion without consent, consent will never be achieved because there is no way everyone will agree upon a single plan of redistribution seen as fair and just
What is Buchanan's thought on healthcare in libertarianism?even if health care is not considered a right by all, the terms of rectification, the harm principle, prudence, and enforced beneficence will make some kind of standard of care possible