MCAT Hormones

yicixifa's version from 2017-05-17 19:23

Section 1

Question Answer
ErythropoietinClass: Peptide --- Gland: Kidney --- Target: bone marrow --- Effect: Increase RBC synthesis
Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)Class: Peptide --- Gland: Heart --- Target: kidney --- Effect: Decrease blood pressure by increasing urine output
ProgesteroneClass: Steroid --- Gland: Ovaries/placenta --- Effect: Endometrial secretion and pregnancy
EstrogenClass: Steroid --- Gland: Ovaries/placenta --- Effect Female characteristics and endometrial growth
TestosteroneClass: Steroid --- Gland: Testes --- Effect: Male characteristics and spermatogenesis
Somatostatin (SS)Class: Peptide --- Gland: Pancreas --- Effectt: Inhibits many digestive processes --- (Delta cells secrete)
GlucagonClass: Peptide --- Gland: Pancreas --- Effect: Increase blood glucose and decrease glycogen/fat storage --- (alpha cells secrete)
InsulinClass: Peptide --- Gland: Pancreas --- Effect: Decrease blood glucose and increase glycogen and fat storage--- (Beta cells secrete)
Sex steroidsClass: Steroid --- Gland: Adrenal Cortex ---Not normally important but an adrenal tumor can overproduce causing masculinization or feminization
AldosteroneClass: Steriod --- Gland: Adrenal Cortex --- Target: Kidney --- Effect: Increase Na+ reabsorption to increase b.p.--- ('mineralocorticoid')

Section 2

Question Answer
CortisolClass: Steroid --- Gland: Adrenal Cortex --- Effect: Long-term stress response; increases blood glucose, increases protein catabolism, decreases inflammation and immunity --- (" glucocorticoid")
EpinephrineClass: Modified amino acid --- Gland: Adrenal Medulla --- Effect: Rapid sympathetic stress response
ThymosinChildren only! --- Class: Peptide --- Gland: Thymus --- Effect: T cell development during childhood
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)Class: Peptide --- Gland: Parathyroid --- Target: Bone, kidney, small intestine --- Effect: raises serum calcium
CalcitoninClass: Peptide --- Gland: Thyroid C cells --- Target: Bone, kidney --- Effect: lowers serum calcium levels
Thyroid hormone (TH or thyroxine)Class: Modified amino acid --- Gland: Thyroid ---Effect (child): necessary for physical and mental development --- Effect (adult): increases metabolic rate/temp

Section 3

Question Answer
OxytocinClass: Peptide --- Gland: Post Pit --- Target: Breasts --- Effect: milk let down
ADH (vasopressin)Class: Peptide --- Gland: Post Pit --- Target: Kidneys --- Effect: Increase b.p. through water retention
FSHClass: Peptide --- Gland: Ant Pit --- Target: Ovaries (follicle development) and Testes (spermatogenesis)
LHClass: Peptide --- Gland: Ant Pit --- Target: Ovaries (ovulation) and Testes (testosterone synthesis)
ACTHClass: Peptide --- Gland: Ant Pit --- Effect: Increase activity of adrenal cortex
TSHClass: Peptide --- Gland: Ant Pit --- Target: Thyroid --- Effect: Increase synthesis and release of TH
ProlactinClass: Peptide --- Gland: Ant Pit --- Target: Mammary gland --- Effect: Milk production
GHClass: Peptide --- Gland: Ant Pit --- Effect: increase bone/muscle growth; increase cell turnover rate
HypothalmusHas releasing and inhibiting factors (peptides) that effect the activity of the anterior pituitary