_____ broken down by salivary _____, pancreatic _____, into ____________ and free fatty acids. Pancreatic amylase complexes with _______, preventing bile salts displacing _____ from the fat droplets. Bile salts are absorbed in the ______. Lipid absorption usually complete by the _________.
(1) triglycerides, (2, 3) amylase, (4) monoglycerides, (5) colipase, (6) lipase, (7) ileum, (8) middle of the jejunum,
Triglycerides are resynthesised in the enterocyte by the _______________________ pathway (major) and the ______________________ pathway (minor)
Triacylglycerol, cholesterol and cholesterol esters are bound by what apoprotein in the enterocyte?
Primary chylomicron picks up ___ and ____ from ______.
(1) C2, (2), E, (3) HDL
C2 activates ___, causing what?
(1) LPL causing hydrolysis of chylomicrons to fatty acids (which are transported into adipocytes), glycerol and chylomicron remnants.
When does the adipocyte use glycolysis?
To form glycerol phosphate for re-esterification of FA to TAG
Chylomicron remnants bind to what receptor on the liver?
VLDL picks up what protein in the liver?
Deficiency in what protein can cause hypercholesterolaemia?
B100 LDL receptor
What do statins do?
inhibit HMG CoA
What's th rate-limitng step in cholesterol synthesis?
Tell me about HDL yo
Apo A1, has phosphatidyl choline on surface of HDL to esterify cholesterol and sequester it away inside
Why are Cu and Fe metalloproteins important?
Oxygen carriage, oxidases
What are the signs of zinc deficiency?
Impaired would healing, hypogonadism, growth retardation
What condition is associated with a mutation in HFE and what are the effects?
Haemochromatosis: absorb excessive dietary iron causes liver failure, diabetes, cardiac failure. Test for serum ferritin and transerrin saturation
FASTING STATE 1) Glucose is low, insulin is low, glucagon is high 2) Glucagon binds to _____________ in the liver, which leads to elevation of _________________ 3) Glycogen phosphorylase converts glycogen to ___________, which in turn is converted to ________________ 4) Glucose-6-P is converted to glucose by glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose is released into the circulation. Liver glycogen depletes quickly, and within a short time it can no longer release glucose. 5) In muscle, glycogen is used internally, converted to G-1-P to G-6-P and then into glycolysis. It lacks G6Pase and so cannot produce glucose to be released into the circulation 6) Blood glucose is taken up by the brain and RBCs; the RBCs release _______ 7) Lactate is transported back to the liver where it is converted to _________ by the Cori cycle. Pyruvate is then converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis 8) With no dietary glucose coming in and depleted liver glycogen stores, glucagon binds to adipocyte receptors and ____________ is released in fat stores 9) ____ is hydrolysed and free fatty acid (non-esterified fatty acids bound to _______) is released into the circulation along with ______ 10) Muscle and the liver will take up fatty acids and oxidise to ____________; glycerol contributes to liver gluconeogenesis 11) The liver will convert acetyl CoA (which in the fed state is converted to fatty acids by insulin) to ketone bodies and release them into the circulation; these KBs, acetoacetate and b-hydroxybutyrate, are taken up by the brain and used as a source of energy 12) In continued absence of blood glucose, the muscle catabolises _______ to ____________ which are transported to the liver for gluconeogenesis; this leads to an increase in ________ production