obinno59's version from 2015-12-12 22:36


Question Answer
Cholesteatoma = It is the result of ______ and may cause symptoms of otorrhea, hearing loss, and dizziness. It also has the potential to continue to grow and invade surrounding structures.2. keratinizing squamous epithelial cells
Acute otitis media vs Otitis media with effusionThere is a key distinction in middle ear pathologies. Acute otitis media (AOM) presents with a bulging of eardrum, inflammation, fever, and otalgia. This is in contrast to otitis media with effusion (OME), which notably has a lack of acute inflammatory signs. Pneumatic otoscopy should be used as the primary diagnostic method for distinguishing OME from AOM, though tympanometry may be used to confirm diagnosis of OME. OME management includes watchful waiting for three months to assess for spontaneous resolution.
Otitis externa seen most commonly in the_______ . _______ is most common etiology an emergency condition can progress to osteomyelitis of the skull base
treatment is ________
1. Diabetic population
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
3. IV ciprofloxacin
Otitis externa txRemoval of cerumen from ear canal
Treat with antibiotic eardrops
Diabetics require hospitalization with IV antibiotics
Sx OM vs OEOE= Pulling on Pinna hurts and it's purulent
______age-related hearing loss
onset in the 5th-6th decade
predominantly a ____ frequency hearing loss
_____most common cause of hearing loss in children meningitis patients should have their hearing tested following ______.1. Bacterial meningitis x2
_____ one of the most common causes of hearing loss in adults caused by fusion of otic bones resulting in ______ hearing loss. It initially leads to loss of ___ frequency first1. Otosclerosis
2. Conductive
3. Low
Rhine vs WeberRinne test
tunning fork placed on the mastoid process
normal: air (AC) > bone conduction (BC)

Weber test
tunning fork placed in the middle of the forehead
Conduction vs Sensorineural deafnessConduction deafness
Rinne: BC > AC (in damaged ear)
Weber: lateralization to damaged ear

Sensorineural deafness
Rinne: AC > BC (in damaged ear)
Weber lateralizes to healthy ear
HIV and hearing loss assoclymphadenopathy may result in serous otitis media and hearing loss
RF for KartergenersKartagener's disease
cystic fibrosis
Wegener's granulomatosis
Acute vs Chronic SinusitisAcute (<1 month)=S. H. M
Chronic (>1 month)=Bacteroides, S. aureus,Pseudomonas
Fungal causes of Sinusitiscaused by aspergillus
caused by mucormycosis in diabetics
Tx Acute vs Chronic SinusitisAcute
-<7 days= supportive
-10-14 days=bactrim, amoxicillin, erythromycin, decongestants

prolonged broad spectrum antibiotics
ampicillin or tetracycline for 4-6 weeks
nasal steroids
if not responsive to antibiotic therapy to improve ventilation and drainage
maxillary sinusotomy, ethmoidectomy, or sphenoid sinusotomy
A 4-year-old boy is noted by his pediatrician to have recurrent respiratory infections. If this child was born with a genetic defect in ciliary function, which of the following could be seen as part of his presentation and work-up?Karagener's syndrome is the eponym coined for primary ciliary dyskinesia with the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis and sinus inversus= A right-sided cardiac silhouette on chest radiograph
Meniere's dz is a form of peripheral vertigo that results from________ due to excess endolymph in the cochlear. Causes include_____. Which shows ____frequency pure-tone hearing loss1. Dilation of membranous labyrinth(fullness)
2. Head trauma or syphilis
3. Low
Meniere's dz txPharmacologic treatment

Non-pharmacologic treatment
low salt diet
avoidance of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine

In refractory cases surgical decompresssion may be necessary
Meniere's dz vs BPPVMeniere's dz= Hearing loss
A 5-year-old boy presents to the ED with fever, neck pain, drooling and a muffled voice. On physical exam, cervical lymphadenopathy and a posterior pharyngeal wall mass is noted.Retropharyngeal Abscess
Causes of Retropharyngeal abscesses?

1. Group A strep
S. aureus
2. Acute necrotizing mediastinitis
Ludwig's angina is ______. This usually arises from an ______source and is an airway emergency.1.Bilateral abscess of the submandibular and sublingual space.
2. Odontogenic
Horizontal nystagmus with specific head postures
Accompanied by nausea and vomiting? Tx?
Zone 1 neck traumaZone I
below the cricoid cartilage
managed with arteriography and endoscopy
Zone 2Zone II
between the angle of the mandible and the cricoid cartilage
managed with surgical neck exploration(Location of thyroid cartilage)
Zone 3Zone III
above the angle of the mandible
managed with arteriography and endoscopy
Infectious Rhinitis causesinfectious (bacterial)
most commonly caused by group A streptococcus or Staphylococcus
infectious (viral)
most commonly caused by rhinovirus, influenza, or parainfluenza
Waardenburg syndromeWaardenburg's syndrome= AD(''DIL For MEN''
D- deafness (cngenital).
I- heterochromic Irides.
L- lateral displacement of inner canthi nd of lacrimal puncta.
For- white forelock.
M- macules (hypomelanotic)
E- eyebrows.(prominence)
N- nasal root. (Prominence))
Leopard syndromeL -- lentigines (dark freckles) on the head and neck
E -- electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities
O -- ocular hyperteleorism (wide-spacing of the eyes)
P -- pulmonary stenosis
A -- abnormal genitalia
R -- retardation of growth
D -- deafness (sensorineural type)

The LEOPARD syndrome is caused by AD mutations in the gene for protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type, 11 (PTPN11).
Pendred syndromeAutosomal recessive
deafness and goiter
the goiter appears at puberty and most patients are euthyroid
Usher syndromeDeafness
mental retardation
retinitis pigmentosa
Leukoplakia causes? RF? Eval?Oral lesion caused by squamous hyperplasia
Associated with ↑ risk of oral squamous cancer
May also be red (erythroplakia)
Most commonly seen at the vermilion border of lower lip
can be seen anywhere in the mouth
Can't be scraped off

tobacco use
infection (EBV, HPV)
chronic irritation (e.g. poor-fitting dentures)

Eval= Bx