Mb C4 Self Quiz

tokia's version from 2016-04-29 03:56


Self Quiz 4


Question Answer
1. Most prokaryotes range in size from 0.5 to 2.0 um yet have large surface-to-volume ratios.This large surface-to-volume ratio allow prokaryotes toGet nutrients easily to all parts of the cell
2. Single chromosome Prokaryotes
Membrane-bound nucleusEukaryotes
Fluid-mosaic membraneBoth
70S ribosomesBoth
Endoplasmic reticulumEukaryotes
Respiratory enzymes in mitochondriaEukaryotes
Peptidoglycan in cell wallProkaryotes
80S ribosomesEukaryotes
"9+2" microtubule arrangement in flagellaEukaryotes
Can have extrachromosomal DNABoth
Meiosis Eukaryotes
3. CoccusRound spheres
SpirillumCorkscrew shaped
VibrioCube of 4 cells
StaphGrapelike clusters
TetradCube of 4 cells
4. (t/f) Members of the Archaea and Bacteria domains are both prokaryotic and similar structure but differ molecularlyTrue
5. Describe the properties of the cell membrane and relate them to the fluid-mosaic modelBacterial cell membranes contain phospholipids and proteins.Phospholipids in the membrane are in a fluid state and proteins are dispersed among the lipid molecules in the membrane forming a mosaic pattern.Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer with the chraged phosphate ends of the lipid molecules located at the inner and outer membrane surfaces where they are hydrophilic (water-loving) and can interact with the watery environment .The fatty acid ends of the phospholipids extend inward from both charged phosphate surfaces where they are tucked away from water and hydrophobic (water-hating) forming a barier between the cell and its environment.Interspersed among the phospholipid molecules are different protein molecules (the mosaic) some of which extend through the entire membrane forming pores or channels that selectively let materials into or out of the cell and other proteins that are embedded in or loosely attached to the inner or outer surface membrane providing different functions (enzymatic...signaling...structural)
6. Which of the following are characteristics of the Gram-positive cell wall(a)Lacks outer membrane...Lacks a periplasmic space...Lacks of plipopolysaccharide...Contains a thick peptidoglycan layer
7. The association of endotoxin in Gram-negative bacteria is a result of the presence ofLypopolysaccharide
8. The reason that bacterial cells are more resistant to osmotic shock than are eukaryotic cells is that theyActively block water molecules form entering the cell
9. Which of the following describes prokaryotic cell membranesContains proteins and phospholipids
10. PhototaxisA response of some bacteria to move toward or away from light
FlagellumLong thin helical appendageused for movement
Conjugation pilusTiny hollow projection that attaches 2 cells providing a coduit for exchange of genetic material
Slime layerThin glycocalyx that prevents dehydration traps nutrients and allows for a attachment to other cells and obects in the environment
ChemotaxisNonrandom response of movement toward or away from chemical concentration gradients in the environment
Glycocalyx Term used to describe all polysaccharide-containing substances external to the cell wall
Axial filamentsSpirochete endoflagella causing corkscrew motion
CapsuleA thick protective polysaccharide-containing structure located outside of the cell wall
11. Draw a diagram describing what will happen to a bacterial cell when it is placed in (a) Hypotonic solution (b) isotonic solution (c) hypertonic solutionsee p.109 figure 4.31
12. Which of the following structures are essential for survival of most bacteriaCell wall and capsule
13. Bacterial fimbriae present on the outer cell surface are used forAdherence to surfaces
14. Describe the structure and function of cillia and pseudopodia. What type of organisms have flagella... cillia and pseudopodiaCilia have the same basic 9+2 arrangement of microtubules found in flagella.Cilia allow faster movement of an organism compared to flagella and in some cells they can propel fluids..dissolved particles...bacteria...mucus and so on past the cell.This function is especially important in host defenses against disease. Pseudopodia are temporary projections of cytoplasm in cells without walls.This renders the cell capable of amoeboid movement.Flagella are found in many Eukaryotes (protozoans...algae...mammals-sperm cells) and in prokaryotes (many species of bacteria).Cilis are found in eukaryotes (protozoans and mammals-cells lining the respiratory tract_.Pseudopods are found in eukaryotes (amoebas and mammals-white blood cells)
15. Usually bacteria form more endospores in response toAdverse environmental stress
16. Cell wallBoth Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
LipopolysaccharideGram-negative bacterium
FlagellumBoth Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
CilliaNot found associated with bacteria
Teichoic acidGram-positive bacterium
17. The use of antibiotics that inhibit or inactivate cellular ribosomes will reslut directly in the loss of which of the following functionsProtein synthesis
18. (t/f)Plasmids are small extrachrmosomal DNA molecules that contain nonessential genes that give bacteria competitive characteristics in their environmentsTrue
19. The site of ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is the _____ and in the eukaryotic cells is the _____cell membrane/mitochondria
20. List the characteristics of a chloroplast and describe its function in the photosynthesisChloroplast characteristics include:chloroplasts are found in eukaryotic plant and algal cells only...contain the pigment chlorophyll...are membrane-enclosed and contain DNA that is replicated independenlty of the cell in which they function.The thylakoid membranes inside of the chloroplast contain chlorophyll pigment and the enzymes needed to harness and capture the enrgy of sunlight for its use in maufacturing a useful form of chemical energy (photosynthesis)
21. Peptidoglycan digested from Gram-_____ bacteria retain their cell membrane but lose their cell walls making them protoplasts whereas cell wall digest of Gram-negative bacteria retain their cell and outer membranes intact making them _____.Other genera of bacteria cell walls such bacteria are called _____Positive...spheroplasts...L-forms
22. CytoskeletonNetwork of microtubules and microfilaments
LysosomesVacuole that contains digestive enzymes
Smooth endoplasmic reticulumContains enzymes for lipid synthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulumHas sites for protein synthesis
NucleusSite of ribosome synthesis
23. Which of the following is not true about phagocytosisIt is a form of exocytosis
24. Facilitated diffusionPassive diffusion down a concentration gradient and across a membrane with the aid of special pores or carrier molecules
OsmosisDiffusion in which water molecules diffuse across a selectively permeable membrane
Simple diffusionNet movement of particles from a region of higher to lower concentration
Passive transportMovement of substances down a concentration gradient with no expenditure of energy
Active transportFluid environment surrounding cells that contains a lower concentration of a dissolved substabce causing to burst
Hypotonic solutionFluid environment surrounding cells that contains a higherconcentration of a dissolved substabce causing to shrink
Isotonic solutionRequires ATP energy to move molecules and ions against their concetration gradient
Hypertonic solutionFluid environment surrounding cells that contains a higherconcentration of a dissolved substabce causing to shrink
25. Mitosis differs from meiosis in the following ways exceptIn mistosis all chromosomes are replicated whereas meiosis only half are replicated
26. For each of the lettered regions identified on this figure give its name and function(a)flagellum (b)inclusion (c)ribosomes (d)pilus (e)chromosome (f)capsule or slime layer (g)cell wall (h)cell membrane (i)cytoplasm (j)plasmid