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MB C16 Self Quiz

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nedokosu's version from 2017-01-25 18:44

Section

Self quiz chapter 16

 

Question Answer
1. LysozymeTears and saliva
Very acidic pHStomach
Sebum and fatty acidsSkin
Low pH, flushing action of urineUrogenital tract
Mucociliary escalatorBronchial tubes
PhagocytesLower respiratory tract
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Question Answer
2. Which of the following is true about adaptive immunity(b and d) It is a specific defense against foreign bodies or antigens (bacteria and viruses) The antigen acivities lymphocytes, which in turn produce antibodies capable of fighting against the specific antigen.
3. (t/f) Healthy skin is our number one line of defense against bacterial infectionsTrue
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Question Answer
4. LymphocytesAdaptive immunity
NeutrophilsInnate immunity
GranulocytesInnate immunity
AntibodiesAdaptive immunity
Mucous membraneInnate immunity
PhagocyteInnate immunity
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Question Answer
5. Which of the following is not a function of the lymohatic systemSequestration of iron
6. Inflammation is influenced by histamine, which is released byBasophils
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Question Answer
7. Describe what occurs in each step of the process of phagocytosis(a) Phagocytes first recognize invading microbes by their patterns unique to the pathogen. (b) In addition, infectious agents and damaged tissues at the infection site both release specific chemical substances that attract phagocytes. At the infection site phagocytes release cytokines, which are a diverse group of soluble proteins each having a specific role in host defenses including activation of cells involved in the inflammatory response. (c) Chemokines (a class of cytokine) attract additional phagocytes to the infection site via chemotaxis ( the movement of a cell towards a chemical stimulus) (d) The phagocyte's cellular membrane must then blind to specific molecules on the surface of the microbes in a process called "adherance." (e) Once captured, the phagocytic membrane extends outward forming pseudopodia that surround the microbe. The pseudopodia then fuse, engulfing the microbe within cytoplasmic vacuole called a phagosome. (f) Once ingested, phagocytes can digest the microbe in several ways. One way is through the fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome forming a phagolysosome. The lysosome brings many types of antimicrobial digestive enzymes to kill the microbe. Phagocytes can also use oxidative methods to kill ingested microbes. (g) Any indigestible material remains in the phagolysosome (now called a residual body) which is then transported to the plasma membrane and is excreted as waste
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Question Answer
8. What is immune cytosis and how is it related to the membrane attack complex (MAC)Immune cytolysis is another complement C3b mediated immune response that causes complement proteins to produce lesions in the cell. The lesions cause cellular contents to leak out. C3b initiates splitting of C5 into C5a and C5b. C5b then binds C6 and C7, forming a hydrophobic C5bC6C7 complex that inserts into the microbial cell membrane. C8 then binds C5b in the membrane, forming a C5bC6C7C8. Thic complex causes multiple C9 molecules to assemble completely through the cell membrane, forming a pore. This C9 pore constitutes the membrane attack complex (MAC) and is lysis of invading microbes.
9. One of the common defense mechanisms pathogenic bacteria have to avoid phagocytosis is the presence ofA capsule
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Question Answer
10. Beside capsule formulation,microbes can resist phagocytosis by which of the following methods(a) Interfering with chemotaxis (b) Production of toxins such as leukocidin and streptolysin that cause the release of the phagocyte's own lysosomal enzymes into its cytoplasm, killing them. (c) Some microbes take up residence within macrophages and are protected from lysosomes and their contents by formation of parasitophorous vacuole (PVs) (d) Avoidance of adherence to macrophages.
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Question Answer
11. Interferon was at first thought to be the viral magic bullet;however,it has been found to have which of the following drawbacks(a) In most cases, administration of interfection is only a treatment and not a cure of viral disease such as genital warts and cancer. (c) Recombinant interfection can be made in large quantities and is relatively cheap. (d) Injection of interfection can produce side effects including fever and organ toxicity.
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Question Answer
12. NeutrophilsMost numerous leukocyte
EosinophilsRelease in large numbers during allergic responses
LymphocytesPartcipate in specific defenses
MonocytesAgranular phagocytes
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Question Answer
13. Opsonization is a special type of innate molecular defense that works together with the complement system. Opsonins play an integral role in this defense and are specialized antibodies that bind to and coat the surfaces of which type of pathogenCapsule or surface protein producing bacteria
14. An organelle found in phagocytic cells that contains ingetsed microbes, digestive enzymes and small proteins called defensins is aphagolysosome
15. Large parasites such as helminths,are most likely attacked by Eosinophils
16. Cells secreing cytotoxic proteins that trigger the death of virus infected cells are known asNatural killer cells
17. The largest lymphatic organ in the body that can digest "wornout" erythrocytes is theSpleen
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Question Answer
18. PyrogenFever-causing substance
Chronic inflammationLong-term inflammation that attempts to destroy and/or confine the region of inflammation
LeukocytosisDamaged cells release cytokines that trigger the production and infiltration of leukocytes to the inflammation site.
Acute inflammationShort-term inflammation that kills invading microbes, clears tissue debris, repairs tissue injury.
EdemaFluid accumulation around injured cells causing swell
BradykininSmall peptide released at injured site that is responsible for pain sensation
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Question Answer
19. Gummas,lepromas and tubercules are all examples of pockets of tissue that surround and wall off areas of infection and inflammation that are calledGranulomas
20. (t/f) The use of an anti-inflammatory drug such as cortisone to treat chronic inflammation can result in a disease occuring due to the inflammatory agentTrue
21. What does leukocyte endogenous factor (LEF) do(b) Lowers plasma iron concentration, slowing growth of microorganisms (d) Elevates the body temperature
22. Cells enter an antiviral state and produce antiviral proteins (AVPs) in response to the presence ofInterferon
23. Which of the following is not true about the complement systemIt is a set of more than 20 proteins that play a key role in host defense by specifically acting in different ways toward different microorganisms.
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Question Answer
24. Put the following events of the acute phase response in order(a)5 The acute phase proteins can now activate the complement system and immune cytosis and stimulate phagocyte chemotaxis. (b)3 C-reactive protein recognizes and binds to phospholipids and mannose sugars, in cell membranes of many bacteria and the plasma membrane of fungi. (c)2 Interleukin-6 reaches the liver via the bloodstream where is causes the liver to synthesize and secrete the acute phase proteins (C-reactive and mannose-binding proteins) into the blood. (d)4 Once bound, the acute phase proteins act like opsonins. (e)1 Macrophage ingestion of microbe stimulates synthesis and secretion of interleukin-6
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Question Answer
25. All of the following are true about interferon exceptAll viruses are sensitive to the antimicrobial actions of interferons
26. In the following diagram,identify the major steps in the phagocytic process. Describe what happens in each stepThe steps are as follows... (a) Invading microorganisms are located by chemotaxis. The phagocyte cell membrane adheres to the surface of the microbe. (b) Ingestion occurs as the phagocyte surrounds and ingests a microbe or other foreign substance into a phagosome. (c) Digestion occurs as lysosomes surround a vacuole and release their enzymes break down the contents of the phagolysosome and produce substances toxic to the microbe. (d) Any indigestible material remains in the phagolysosome, which is now called a residual body. (e) The phagocyte transports the residual body to the plasma membrane where the waste is excreted.
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