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Mass Comm Test 2 PART 1

rosesarered's version from 2018-11-05 17:39


Question Answer
Factors that determine whether restrictions of speech are allowable under the First Amendmentapplicable to everyone, without political bias, serve a significant government interest, and leave ample alternative ways for the communication to take place
Obsceneoffensive to accepted standards of decency and modesty
Obscene material is distinct frompornography and indecent material
Obscenity, three criteria to be declared obscene1) “An average person, applying current community standards finds that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to prurient [lewd] interests. 2) The work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual content as specifically defined by applicable state law. 3) A reasonable person has to agree that the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value”
Safe HarborOn TV and radio “indecent” material with “patently offensive” sexual or excretory references are limited to a “safe harbor” between 10 pm and 6 am.
1998 Digital Millennium Copyright ActEstablished that website owners aren’t liable for information posted by their users, provided that they promptly remove the material when notified by the copyright owners.
Subliminal MessagesJust a word on subliminal advertising, which is most often associated with sexual content in the media. Having “hidden” messages embedded into content.
Copyright definitionthe legal protection of a creator’s right to a work
CopyrightAuthors and inventors have the exclusive right to their creations and discoveries for a limited period of time. Purpose was to encourage creativity and discovery. Time is limited; after the copyright expires materials enter the public domain, where it can be used by others, which is also thought to encourage creativity. Current copyright length: life of the author + 70 yrs, for corporate-owned works, it’s 95 yrs.
Exceptions to copyrightFair use: can use copyrighted material before it moves into the public domain without permission under certain circumstances; more likely to be the case when: copied work is non-commercial or out of print, the copy-er isn’t making a profit (for education, research or criticism), the new work is transformative – the material is made into something new, only a small proportion of the original is copied, and the copying doesn’t affect the market value of the original.
Fair use regulationsprovisions under which a person or company may use small portions of copyrighted work without asking permission (exception to copyright)
Transformativewhen use of copyrighted material presents the work in a way that adds interpretation to it so that some people might see it in a new light (exception to copyright)
Parodya work that imitates another work for laughs in a way that comments on the original work (exception to copyright)
Copyright Act of 1976law that recognizes the rights of an individual creator from the time he has created a work and that protects a creative work for the lifetime of the author plus 70 years
Privacythe right to be protected from unwanted intrusions or disclosures
Public domainthe state of belonging or being available to the public as a whole, and therefore not subject to copyright
Pornographythe presentation of sexually explicit behavior in order to arouse sexual excitement
Indecent Materialmaterial that may be offensive, but which might have potential social value (typically applied in the context of broadcasting regulation)
Trademarka recognizable insignia, phrase or symbol that denotes a specific product or service and legally differentiates it from all other products
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)a federal agency whose mission is to ensure that the nation’s markets function competitively; its coverage can include any mass media (print or electronic) as long as the issue involved is related to the smooth functioning of the marketplace and consumer protection in that sphere - creates technical order, encourages competition, and protects consumers - Advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission, which requires that ads are not false or misleading. They have the power to prevent misleading ad from being distributed, but there’s no formal mechanism through which ads are reviewed beforehand, so more frequently they step in after a published ad is questioned. They can require that ads be withdrawn and mandate corrective advertising.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) a federal agency specifically mandated by Congress to govern interstate and international communication by tv, radio, wire, satellite, and cable - only gets involved if someone complains - broadcast regulations do not apply to satellite or cable - broadcast indecency regulations do not address violence or hate speech
Content ratings, MPAA, ESRBG-General Audience, PG-Parental Guidance Suggested, 14-Parents Strongly Cautioned, MA-Mature Audiences Only (L-coarse language, D-suggestive dialogue, N-nudity, S-sexual situations, V-violence)


Question Answer
Numbers and figures related to sex on televisionSex on TV (early 2000s) --68% of shows contain sexual content --65% talk about sex --29% depict physical sexual behaviors --Reference to sex outside of marriage outnumbers reference to sex in marriage 6:1 --24:1 on soap operas --32:1 in R-rated movies.
Findings on Sexual AttitudesMen who viewed attractive nudes in porn rated their own partners as less physically attractive than those who didn’t see the movies - They also reported loving their partners less - Effects not limited to men - People who watch a lot of sexually explicit content tend to overestimate prevalence of sexual behaviors - Similar findings for teens and viewing of daytime TV.
Sex and valuesconcerns that cumulative exposure to similar messages about sex might “cultivate” values about sex (cultivation theory-persistent long term exposure to tv content has small but measurable effects on the audiences)
2008 Content Analysis on Popular MagazinesThis content analysis examined the depiction of women in 1,988 advertisements from 58 popular U.S. magazines. On average across magazines, one of two advertisements that featured women portrayed them as sex objects. Women appeared as victims in just under ten percent of the advertisements. Men’s, women’s fashion, and female adolescent magazines were more likely to portray women as sex objects and as victims than news and business, special interest, or women’s non-fashion magazines.
Catharsis LegendPeople sometimes argue that exposure to sexually explicit material can facilitate expression of sexual urges and actually decrease arousal - Little to no evidence of this effect
Contextcontext and who one is with influences responses to sexual media
Learning about Sex in the Mediapeople learn about sex from various sources - sexual themes in entertainment are not new
Community StandardsBecause of the community standard criterion, it is theoretically possible to have a movie or magazine declared to be obscene in one community but not in another



Question Answer
Recent Fearfear from a prior event or exposure can combine to increase fear - people will be more frightened by something depicted in the media if they have recently been frightened
Typical Fright Reactionimmediate emotional response - typically short-term - anxiety, distress, increased physiological arousal
Fright Reactions to Unrealistic Threats
Fright from Childhoodfilm or TV show that scares children
Motivations for fear exposureentertainment and information
Entertainmentsuspension of disbelief to increase fright (wanting to be scared) - others want to reduce fright reactions (desensitize ourselves)
Informationdepictions of real threats should result in more fear than portrayal of events that could never happen or are unlikely to happen
Developmental Differences in Media-Induced Fearpeople generally expect that as children get older, they have fewer fright responses to the media - fear doesn’t decrease, but the types of fear responses do (3-8 years- Animals, the dark, supernatural beings - 9-12 years- personal injury and physical destruction, injury or death of family members - 13-17- personal injury and physical destruction, social fears, political, economic, global fears)
Three Stimuli and Events that Generally Produce Feardangers and injuries - distortion of natural forms - experience of endangerment and fear by others
Danger and injuriesif these things happened in real life, the observer would be in danger. Because we’re conditioned to know that these things produce danger in real life, they produce an automatic fear response when we’re exposed to them-even in the media.
Distortion of natural formsresponses are spontaneous, and don’t require conditioning like responses to dangers and injuries require - mutations could be due to injury - but not necessarily the case
Experience of endangerment and fear by othersmedia show others facing fearful situations - we can experience empathy for those others - fear through empathy can happen even if the characters don’t express fear themselves
Children and Fantasy vs. Realityas children mature, they become more responsive to realistic depictions and less responsive to fantasy-type dangers depicted in the media (fantasy danger (comics) and reality danger (horror movies)
Children and Intensity of Fright Reactionschildren who see scary things on TV worry about them in their own lives - children who see scary things on TV or in movies tend to avoid those things - effects may be long-term - effects may be irrational
Examples of How Media can Induce Fright Reactions

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