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Mass Comm Test 1 CH 3-4

rosesarered's version from 2018-10-02 20:01


Question Answer
Audiencesthe people to whom a media product is directed
Media practitionersthe people who select or create the material that a mass media firm produces, distributes, or exhibits
Demographicscharacteristics by which people are divided in particular social categories.
Demographic indicatorsfactors such as age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, race, and income.
Psychographicsa way to differentiate among people or groups by categorizing them according to their attitudes, personality types, or motivations.
Media audiences are active consumerspeople seek out media
Genremajor category of media content - can be subdivided into more specific subgenres, can be combined into hybrid genres, and is typically defined by common elements such as setting, characters, and patterns of action
Different media tend to beused for different purposes because they have different characteristics and affordances and different audiences will use specific media for different purposes (the reasons we use media may help determine whether and how it influences us
Reasons/ways people use the mediaenjoyment, companionship, surveillance, and interpretation
Enjoymentwant to feel better - laughter, aesthetic appreciation, vicarious joy/triumph, sense of meaning/release of sad feelings
Companionshipconnection with others/characters - connections with characters, connections with real-life others, social currency
Surveillancewhat is going on - staying informed, knowing what is going on around the world and in your community, a way to keep in the know
Interpretationevaluating the situation - why things are going on or may have happened, who or what is responsible, finding solutions to current problems
Entertainmentmaterial that grabs the audience’s attention and leaves agreeable feelings, as opposed to challenging their views of themselves and the world
Formulaa patterned approach to creating content that is characterized by the use of setting, typical characters, and patterns of actions
Settingenvironment in which content takes place
Typical charactersthose who appear regularly in the subgenre
Patterns of actionthe predictable activities associated with the characters in the settings
Hybrid genresmixed genres
Hybriditythe process of mixing genres within and across cultures
Hard newsa news story marked by timeliness, unusualness, conflict, and closeness of the incident - personalized (happened to specific individual), dramatic (controversial), actual or concrete (single isolated event), novel (out of the ordinary), already in the agenda (waves of attention to the issue)
Objectivitypresenting a fair, balanced, impartial representation of events that took place by recounting a news event based on the facts and without interpretation
Accuracyreporting factually correct information
Soft newsnews that reporters feel does not have the critical importance of hard news but would still appeal to substantial number of people in the audience - is not time sensitive, focuses on “human-interest” stories (lifestyle, entertainment)
Advertisementa message that explicitly aims to direct favorable attention to certain goods and services
Product placementthe process by which the manufacturer pays a production company for the opportunity to have its product displayed in a movie or TV show
Informational adsadvertisements that rely primarily on the recitation of facts about a product and its features to convince the target audience that it is the right product for them to purchase
Hard-sell adsmessages that combine information about the product with intense attempts to get the consumer to purchase it as soon as possible
Soft-sell adsadvertisements that aim mostly to create good feelings about the product or service by associating it with music, personalities, or events that the creators of the product feel would appeal to the target audience
Productionthe creation of mass media materials for distribution through one or more mass media vehicles
Mass media production firma company that creates materials for distribution through one or more mass media vehicles
Financing mass media contentthrough loans, investment banks
Investment bankscompanies that arrange to lend millions of dollars to companies and that also arrange stock offerings
Syndicatea group of banks that agree to share the risks and rewards of the lending deal, organized by investment banks when very large amounts of money are required
Stock offeringsselling units of ownership in the company, or shares of stock, to organizations and individuals
Venture capitalistsindividuals or companies that invest in startup or nonpublic firms in the hope that the firm’s value will increase over time
Inotial public offering (IPO)the offering for sale to the general public of a predetermined number of shares of company stock that were previously owned by a limited number of individuals and the listing of the company’s shares on the stock exchange
Media conglomerationhaving only a handful of companies own pretty much all the mainstream media - which means we get similar stories and cross promotion
Funding new venturesloans from investment banks or banking syndicates, venture capitalists (smaller, newer companies), initial public offerings (after startups become more established companies), and crowd funding


Question Answer
Advertisingthe activity of explicitly paying for media space or time in order to direct favorable attention to certain goods or services - when a company buys space or time on mass medium in which it is allowed to display a persuasive message for a product or a service
Types of advertisementsinformational ads (ads that rely primarily on the recitation of facts about a product and the product’s features), hard-sell ads (ads that combine information about the product with intense attempts to get the consumer to purchase it as soon as possible, and soft-sell ads (ads that aim mostly to create good feelings about the product or service by associating with music, personalities, or other appealing factors
Repetition iskey. And not just a single ad, but an ongoing campaign
The goal of an advertisement isto persuade people toward an explicit action
Market segmentationdividing society into different categories of customers
Ad campaignthe entire set of advertisements using a particular theme to promote a certain product for a certain period of time
Native advertisementa message about a product that is produced in the format and style of the media in which it is placed
Product integrationthe act of building plot lines or discussions for talk shows and reality TV around specific brands
Direct marketingmarketing that uses media vehicles created by the marketer to send persuasive messages asking that consumers who receive them respond to the marketer
Relationship marketinga firm’s process of maintaining long-term contact with its customers
Interactivitythe ability to cultivate rapport with, as well as the loyalty of, individual customers
3 shifts in the advertising world1) shift from interpersonal methods to mediated methods 2) TV, radio, & print became the major carriers of advertisements 3) the arrival of the internet and internet advertising
More types of traditional mass media advertisingservice ads, goodwill ads, advocacy ads, direct-response ads (infomercials), public service announcements, and political ads
Advertising works throughselective exposure and selective attention, celebrity status, lifestyle you want or don’t want

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