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Mass Comm Test 1 CH 1-2

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rosesarered's version from 2018-10-02 20:01

CHAPTER 1

Question Answer
Mediaare platforms or vehicles that industries have developed for the purpose of creating and sending messages
Convergenceoccurs when two or more things come together - the ability of different media to easily interact with each other because they all deal with information in the same digital form - also deals with user contribution where users can combine and mash-up content and redistribute it
Media convergencetakes place when products typically linked to one medium show up on many media
Mass communicationis becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish types of mass comm from each other and to distinguish mass comm from other forms of communication - “Industrialized production and multiple distribution of messages through technological devices .” Basically, it’s communication through a technological medium that was mass-produced. Includes traditional mass media even when they’re distributed in non-traditional ways (streaming video, online newspapers, etc.)
Audience fragmentationthe process of dividing audience members into segments based on background and lifestyle in order to send them messages targeted to their specific characteristics - As the number of media options increase, the audience gets more spread out and outlets increasingly target specific types of audiences rather than everyone
CommunicationPeople interacting in ways that at least one of the parties involved understands as the transmission of a message
MediumPart of a technical system that helps in the transmission, distribution, or reception of messages
Industrialized (mass) Productionwhat Turow sees as the factor that distinguishes mass communication from other forms of communication. It implies: An organization (rather than an individual) is the source/encoder of a message. There are a relatively large number of intended receivers who are in different locations, targeted as a group rather than unique individuals. Feedback from those receivers to the source is limited
Messagescollections of symbols (words, signs) that appear purposely organized to those sending or receiving them
Interpersonal communicationa form of communication that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices, facial, and hand gestures and other signs to convey meaning
Mediated interpersonal communicationa specialized type of interpersonal communication that is assisted by a device, such as a pen, pencil, computer or phone
Social currencymedia content used as coins of exchange in everyday interpersonal discussions
Parasocial interactionthe psychological connections that some media users establish with celebrities whom they learn about through the mass media - perceived similarity is key to forming a parasocial relationship with a celebrity
Mass mediathe technological vehicles through which mass communication takes place
Mass media outletscompanies that send out messages via mass media
Surveillanceusing the media to learn about what is happening in the world around us
Interpretationusing the media to find out why things are happening-who or what is the cause-and what to do about them
Interactivitythe ability to track and respond to any actions triggered by the end user in order to cultivate a rapport
Cultureways of life that are passed on to members to a society through time and that keep the society together
Societylarge numbers of individuals, groups, and organizations that live in the same general area and consider themselves connected to one another through the sharing of a culture
Subculturesgroups with habits that many people consider odd and unusual but not threatening to the more general way of life
Stereotypespredictable depictions that reflect and sometimes create cultural prejudices
Political ideologiesbeliefs about who should hold the greatest power within a culture
Literacythe ability to effectively comprehend and use messages that are expressed in written or printed symbols
Influences of effectivenesspersonal experience, political and moral beliefs, interpersonal relationships, proximity, disposition while viewing, and countless others
Media literacythe ability to apply critical thinking skills to the mass media becoming more aware and responsible
Mass production processthe industrial process that creates the potential for reaching millions of diverse, anonymous people at the same time
Content AnalysesStudies taking samples of media content (ideally representative of the population of content they represent). Analyze content for certain themes, depictions, etc. Don’t provide evidence of effects, but have implications for understanding effects. Simply about the numbers and ratios.
Stereotypes and representations
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CHAPTER 2

Question Answer
Powerful vs limited effectspowerful is mostly ignored now, limited is most common view now
Limited effectsvarious factors influence effects of messages on audiences: individual predispositions, selective perception processes, and interpersonal communication about mediated messages - media alone are not sufficient cause for effects and media is only one of many influences
Mass media researchthe use of systematic methods to understand or solve problems regarding the mass media
Propagandamessages designed to change attitudes and behavior of numbers of disconnected individuals on controversial issues
Agenda settingthe notion that media create “the ideas in our heads” about what is going on in the world - media tells us “what” to think about, it is a filtered view
Agenda setting vs framingAgenda setting = media influencing us “what” to think about. Framing = media influencing us “how” to think about it
News iswhat reporters, editors, and producers decide it is
Factors that impact coveragetimeliness (how recently did it happen), impact (how many/who are/is impacted), proximity (how close is it to home), controversy (it’s human nature to be interested in conflict), prominence (was a well known person involved), currency (are people talking about it), and oddity (is it unusual)
What influences contentaccess (can the media have access to cover the story), cost (impact of wire service on news and technology), and time and space (deadlines and breaking news)
Internal constraints to get newsvisual (footage is needed), newsworthy (is it worth covering), media owners (may not want certain topics covered), and time in history
Key players in how news is presentedthe reporter, the mechanics of the story, and the objectivity and balance
News as persuasionthe way an image is presented affects an individual’s perception
Framing of a storyjournalists choose words and images that have the power to influence how we interpret and evaluate issues, news frames influence audience’s interpretations and responses, influences beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors
Propaganda analysisthe systematic examination of mass media messages that seem designed to sway the attitudes of large populations on controversial issues
Magic bullet or hypodermic needle theory/approachthe idea that messages delivered through the mass media persuade all people powerfully and directly as if hit by a needle or bullet without the people having any control over the way they react - linear communication theory, direct and powerful influence, passive audience - focuses on short-term, immediate and measurable effects on beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors
Social relationsinteractions among people that influence the way individuals interpret media messages
Panel surveyasking the same individuals questions over a period of time in order to find out whether and how the attitudes of these people change over time
Two-step flow modelmedia influence works in two stages: 1) media content (opinion and fact) is picked up by people who use the media frequently and 2) these people, in turn, act as opinion leaders when they discuss media content with others therefore influencing by media one step removed from actual content
Active audiencethe idea that people are not simply passive recipients of media messages, they respond to content based on their personal backgrounds, interests, and interpersonal relationships
Uses and gratifications researchresearch that studies when, how, and why people use media products to meet their needs and interests, it asks and answers questions about why individuals use mass media
Cultivation studiesstudies that emphasize that when media systematically portray certain populations in unfavorable ways, the ideas that mainstream audiences pick up about those people help certain groups in society retain their power over the groups they denigrate
Mean world syndromelong term exposure to TV can cultivate perceptions of a mean and dangerous world even though it is not a true reflection of the real world around us
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