santhoshv339's version from 2017-02-07 16:35

The Rise of the Marathas

Question Answer
What were the reasons for rise of Marathas in 16th and 17th centuries ? The physical environment of Maratha country, spread of the Bhakti movement created unity, spiritual leaders like Tukkaram, Ramdas, Vaman Pandit and Eknath fostered social unity ,lastly political unity by Shivaji,also Marathas held important positions in the administrative and military systems of Deccan Sultanates of Bijapur and Ahmadnagar
When and where was Shivaji born ? Shivner in 1627
Which Jagir did Shivaji inherit from his father Shahji Bhonsle ?jagir of Poona
Which places did Shivaji conquer from the ruler of Bijapur ?Raigarh, Kondana and Torna
From whom did Shivaji get Javli ?Maratha chief, Chanda Rao More
Whom did Sultan of Bijapur send agaist Shivaji ?Afzal Khan
Which treaty was signed by Shivaji with Raja Jai Singh of Amber ?Treaty of Purander in 1665
Which mughal place did Shivaji plunder twice in 1664 and 1670 ?Surat
Where did Shivaji crown himself at and assume the title Chatrapathi in 1674 ?Raigarh
Which places in Carnatic region did Shivaji capture ? Ginjee and Vellore
What was the Treaty of Purander ?Shivaji had to surrender some forts to the Mughals - remaining forts were to be left to Shivaji on condition of service and loyalty to Mughal empire. On the other hand, the Mughals recognized the right of Shivaji to hold certain parts of the Bijapur kingdom - As Shivaji asked to exempt him from personal service to the Mughals, his minor son Shambaji was granted a mansab of 5000
Where was Shivaji imprisoned in 1666 ?Agra
Whom did the Mughal governor of the Deccan send against Shivaji ?Shaista Khan

Shivaji’s Administration

Question Answer
The king was assisted by a council of ministers called ?Ashtapradhan
Who was responsible for Finance and general administration and later became the prime minister ?Peshwa
Who was Military commander, a honorary post ?Sar-i-Naubat or Senapati
Who was Accountant General ?Amatya
Who was responsible for Intelligence, posts and household affairs ?Waqenavis
Who was responsible for Correspondence ?Sachiv
Who was Master of ceremonies ?Sumanta
Who was responsible for Justice ?Nyayadish
Who was responsible for Charities and religious administration ?Panditarao
The revenue system of Shivaji was based on that of ?Malik Amber of Ahmadnagar
Lands were measured by using the measuring rod called ?kathi
Lands were also classified into three categories which were ?paddy fields, garden lands and hilly tracks
Shivaji reduced the powers of the existing land chiefs who were called ?Sardeshmuks and kulkarnis
Shivaji appointed his own revenue officials called ?karkuns
What wrere the taxes collected not in the Maratha kingdom but in the neighbouring territories of the Mughal empire or Deccan sultanates called ?Chauth and sardeshmukhi
What was Chauth ?one fourth of the land revenue paid to the Marathas in order to avoid the Maratha raids
What was Sardeshmukhi ?additional levy of ten percent on those lands which the Marathas claimed hereditary rights
The cavalry was supervised by ?Havaildars who were given fixed salaries.
What were the two divisions in the Maratha cavalry ?Bargirs - equipped and paid by the state and silahdars - maintained by the nobles
Which foot soldiers played an important role In the infantry ?Mavli foot soldiers
How were forts protected against treachery ?they were put under the charge of three officers of equal rank

Balaji Viswanath

Question Answer
What was the period of rule of Balaji Viswanath ?1713-1720
Who made the role of peshwa powerful as well as hereditary ?Balaji Viswanath
Who played a crucial role in the civil war and finally made Shahu as the Maratha ruler ?Balaji Viswanath
In 1719, Balaji Viswanath got certain rights from the then Mughal emperor ?Farukh Siyar
What rights did Balaji Viswanath get from Mughal emperor Farukh Siyar ?First, the Mughal emperor recognized Shahu as the Maratha king. Second, he allowed Shahu to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the six Mughal provinces of the Deccan including the Carnatic and Mysore

Baji Rao I

Question Answer
What was the period of rule of Baji Rao I ?1720-1740
Who was Baji Rao ? eldest son of Balaji Viswanath
Who initiated the system of confederacy among the Maratha chiefs where each Maratha chief was assigned a territory which could be administered autonomously ?Baji Rao I
Gaekwad chiefs were fromBaroda
Bhonsle chiefs were fromNagpur
Holkars chiefs were fromIndore
Scindias chiefs were fromGwalior
Peshwas chiefs were fromPoona

Balaji Baji Rao

Question Answer
What was the period of rule of Balaji Baji Rao ?1740-1761
what was the agreement of Peshwa,Balaji Baji Rao and Mughal emperor in 1752 ?Peshwa would protect the Mughal Empire from internal and external enemies for which the Chauth of the northwest provinces and the total revenue of the Agra and Ajmer provinces would be collected by the Marathas
Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 was fought between ?Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali - where Marathas got defeated
What were the reasons for the downfall for downfall of Maratha empire ?Lack of unity among the Maratha, superiority of the British army and fighting methods