quickster2008's version from 2016-10-22 21:16

Section 1

Question Answer
rule of 1/3s 1/3->40, middle 1/3 should be medullary, outer 2/3 should be cortical
rule of 1/2s>40 yo half of bone should be cortical, half should be medullary
how much of bon lost before apparent on xray1/3 or 33%
ST contour thicker medially and proximally
how to tell WB vs NWBlook at the joint spaces and see if they are clearly visible. If the MPJs are clearly visible the view is probably WB
WB DP foot taken at ? degrees15
NWB DP foot taken at ? degrees0
WB DP ankle taken at ? degrees90
densities from least dense to most dense(radioopaque)gas/air, fat, water(muscle & tendon), atrophied tissue, calcific density, osseous density, metallic/glass

Section 2

Question Answer
small area of discontinuity usually in long bones. Eventually fades away over time.Benign fibrocortical defect
may look like a fx, but discontinuity “stops” halfway through the cortex.Nutrient foramen
area of low trabecular density in the anterior inferior portion of the calcaneus.Ward’s triangle
finding on lateral of the distal neck of the talus that occurs secondary to capsular pressure.Talar beaking
secondary ossification center.pseudo-epiphysis
seen when a bone (usually phalanx) is perpendicular to the film plane. It may look like a cyst.gun-barrel effect
located at the posterior aspect of the calcaneus, and has irregular margins.calcaneal apophysis
normal (small) variant of navicular developmentsilver dollar navicular

Section 3

Question Answer
posterior to the lateral tubercle of the talus.Os Trigonum
fused os trigonumsteida's process
secondary ossification center of the navicular tuberosityos tibiale externum
ossicle in the PT tendonaccessory navicular
ossicle near navicular that is pyramidal in shapepre-hallux
occurs btw the 1st cuneiform and 1st and 2nd MT bases.Os Intermetatarsium
located on the dorsal aspect of the TN jointOs Supranaviculare
other names for Os Supranaviculare Os pirie, Os unci
located at the anterior process of the calcaneusOs Calcaneus Secundarius
located posterior to the sustentaculum taliOs Sustentaculi
located on the dorsum of the talar head.Os Supratalare
occurs at the proximal 5th MT base.Os Vesalinum
occurs usually at the base of the distal phalanx at the medial or lateral aspect.Accessory ossicle of the Hallux
occur distal to the medial and lateral malleoli.Os Subtibiale/Subfibulare
located at the IPJ of the hallux, may remain cartilaginous. Assoc w/ plantar HPKs.interphalangeal sesamoid of hallux
occur in the joint capsule and short flexor tendons of the lesser digits. Does not occur in the 3rd.lesser IPJ sesamoids
a sesamoid in the PL tendon near the cuboid.os peroneum

Section 4

Question Answer
an increased radiodensity which matches that of muscle or tendon, usually in areas where fat density is normal.edema
Edema is normally classified bycause
caused by obstruction of the lymphatic channels draining the affected area.obstructive edema
edema associated with systemic disordersinflammatory edema
causes of obstructive edemaD/Dx include tumor, trauma, radiation (repeated exposure to radiation damages lymphatic channels), inflammation, surgery, burns, infection, or helminthic infestation
causes of inflammatory edema A vitaminosis, RCPS, melorheotosis, collagen vascular diseases, dilantin use, reynaud’s disease, and thyroid dysfunction (thyroid acropachy – nodular myxedema.)
edema will be localized to the site of trauma and should be consistent with the history.Traumatic edema
type of edema is seen in stress fractures, infection, and in surgical sites post-op.Traumatic edema
how will a achilles injury effect the kager's trianglewill cause triangle to disappear
visible as increased tissue density surrounding the ankle joint caused by extravasation of fluid to the ankle joint subsequent to trauma.teardrop sign of ankle
area of localized ossification secondary to acute trauma. mass appears similar to an egg, with well-defined borders. myositis post-traumatica (circumscripta)
neuro disorders that cause Small localized areas of increased density, The calcifications occur at levels below the neurogenic lesion. myelomeningocoele, spinal cord hemisection, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis
visible as diffuse edema surrounding the area of the affected ligament.Ligamentous sprain
cause areas of devitalized tissue to show up on radiographs as areas of increased density.burns and frostbite
foreign body that wont show up on xraywood

Section 5

Question Answer
bones built for axial support and locomotiontubular bones
built for protection of vital organs.flat bones
Tubular bone forms byendochondral ossification
flat bones formed byintramembranous ossification
surrounds and protects the bone,periosteum
The periosteum is made up of an outer fibrous layer and an inner ? layer which contains osteocytes.cambium
layer of bone most closely associated with bone healing.inner layer of the periosteum or cambium as well as the endosteum
pulloff fx consisting of a fragment of bone pulled off by a muscle, tendon, or ligament.avulsion fx
triangular shaped cortical fragment that is part of a communuted fracture.Butterfly Fx
small fragment of bone from a joint margin.Chip/Corner Fx
piece of osteophytic bone that breaks off into a joint space.joint mouse
Fleck Signavulsion fx by the lisfranc’s ligament of the base of the 2nd metatarsal.
fracture at metaphyseal/diaphyseal junctionjones fx
degrees of oblique fx45
closed reductionrealign fragments through manipulation of ST, stabilize w/ cast
open reductionrealign fragments surgically, followed by internal stabilization via rigid fixation, using ORIF