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Mandos Bio 100

Updated 2008-09-30 00:15


Question Answer
Cancer is the result ofUnregulated cell. A cell is dividing when it should not.
Cell division is necessary forGrowth, Replace old cells, Repair damaged tissue and reproduction
TumorUnregulated Bunch of cells
Metastatic CancerThe Cells Travel break away.
Metastatic cells can travel through thecirculatory system and lymphatic system.
Lymphatic systemcontains lymph nodes
Circulatory system consist ofBlood Vessels virus, arteries
Metastatic cells break away... travel through theLymph nodes to the circulatory system
Cancerous cellsdivide when they should not, Invade surrounding tissue
Before a cell is ready to divide it needs to duplicate itscytoplasm, organs and DNA and nucleus.


Interphase is the preparation phase. interphase has three distinct phases:
Question Answer
G1 phasecell growth
S phaseSynthesis, copy DNA
G2 phase
DNA is copied inS phase
The cell cycle is tightly controlled by your body. Why?Cancer is caused by unregulated cell division.
Growth factorsAre proteins send to cells that need to divide.
Receptor A.K.A. MailboxProtein produced by the cell


Question Answer
Dna contains instruction on how to make proteins. If DNA is changedyou get a different Protein
The letters "ATA" tell you what the nextamino acid is in the protein.
What happens if DNA mutates to "AAA"A different amino acid is used in the protein. Protein is different from before.
How many DNA molecules can you find in a human Cell?46 those molecules contain instructions for all the proteins you need.
MutationChange in the Dna Sequence. Occurs when DNA is copied wrong.
What is wrong with the mutated receptor (Mailbox)it thinks it is always full.
Why is that bad?cell will divide wven if it is not suppose to.
What type of doctor do you visit when you have cancer?oncologist
Proto-oncogeneGood Gene
OncogeneBad Gene
Tumor suppressorsProteins that monitor cell division
Protein called P53This protein also decided whether a cell should commit suicide.
Benign TumorFaulty receptor 1 of 2 things went wrong half way of malignant
Malignant (cancerous) tumorFaulty receptors
As soon as p53 mutatesit overrides all checkpoints
About 50% of all cancers are a result of a mutation to theP53 protein
Why is cancer more common in tissues with cell that divide frequently?More chances for mistakes.
Are you as smart as your genes?
Question Answer
Life CycleDescription of the growth and reproduction of an individual
Eggs containGenetic information (DNA) from Mom
Sperm containGenetic information (DNA) from Dad
GametesSex cells (Sperm and Egg)
Inheritance of traits example: dad has blood type AB. Mom has Blood type OO. What could be the blood type of their kid?AO or BO could not be AB
How many copies of the blood type does gene dad have?2
How many copies of the blood type does gene mom have?2
How many copies of the blood type gene in a sperm cell?1
How many copies of the blood type gene in an egg?1
How many copies of the blood type gene in the baby?2
ChromosomeDNA molecule plus associated proteins
How many chromosomes do we have?46 This is 23 pairs.
For each pair of chromosomes you have, you got1 from your mom and 1 from your dad.
How many chromosomes in a human egg cell?23
How many chromosomes do babies have?23+23=46
Diploid (2n)2 copies of every chromosome
Haploid (1n)1 copy of every chromosome
Somatic cellBody Cell
Compare mitosis with meiosis: Mitosis produce2 somatic cells and Daughter cells have 46 chromosomes (Diploid: 2N)
Meiosis Produce4 gametes and Daughter cells have 23 chromosomes (Haploid (1N))
What does PMAT stand for?Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telaphase
Prophasecentrioles move to the poles nuclear envelope will break up
MetaphaseChromosomes line up at the equator
Anaphasesister chromatides are seperated
telephase2 are those cells haploid or diploid? They are Haploid
Homologous pair of chromosomes containsthe same genes/chromosomes
GeneA piece of a chromosome that contain information about a trait ex. Blod type, hair color, eye color
Every chromosomes containsmultiple genes
AllelesDifferent versions of the same gene
Does every body have the same genes?Yes
Does every body cell need t make all the proteins coded in those genes?No
Genetic variation is caused by mutations. Hypothetical example: assume only blood type O exist. Where did blood type B come From?A mutation/ Allele "O" was copied incorrectly.
Gregor Mendel StudiedPea Plants
Homozygous2 copies of the same allele (ex. AA)
Heterozygous2 different alleles (ex.Aa)
PhenotypeEnglish words, English descriptions
Genetic diseases are caused bydefective allele that make useless protien
We have a protein that transports chlorine throughout are bodies. People with 2 defective alleles have cystic fibrosis.
Homozygous receive (aa)have cystic fibrosis
One in 25 people are heterozygous (Aa). they carry the disease, but do not show any symptoms. Why?Because (A) allele still produce the correct protein


Question Answer
sickled cells not as good atcarrying oxygen
Sickled cells my get tangle andclog blood vessels
Recessive allele (a) producesdysfunctional protein
Does AA have sickle cell anemia?No
Does aa have sickle cell anemiaYes
Does Aa have sickle cell anemiaYes, some what
Huntington's DiseaseProgressive deterioration

Is Aa Sick?

Question Answer
Cystic fibrosisDisease caused by recessive allele "a" Aa is a carrier
Sickle cell anemia allele is codominant.As is slightly sick. Both A and a show up
Huntington's diseasecaused by dominant "A" Aa as well as AA have the diseas
Predicting offspring genotypes
Question Answer
Mom is Ff. What is/are the gentotype(s) of her eggs?1/2 of the eggs will contain F other have f
Could Ff be the genotype of an egg?No
A woman is FF. What eggs can she produce?100% Big F
A man is ff. What sperm can he produce 100% little f
Mom is Ff. Dad is Ff. What are possible genotypes of their babies: FF, Ff, ff
Question Answer
Cystic fibrosis is a single gene trait. it is a Qualitative Trait.
Traits like height, weight and susceptibility to cancer areQuantitative traits.
Intelligence is aQuantitative trait


Question Answer
Step 1. Get DNA fromBlood, semen , Hair, Skin, Skeleton remains.
Step 2. If you have only a small amount of DNA then you need to amplify (make many copies of) the DNA. this is done with the Plymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Taq polymeraseenzyme type
An enzyme harvested from a bacteria called thermus aquatics. Those bacteria live inthe water/ hot springs.
What does Taq polymerase do?is the DNA polymerase in T. Aquatics
What is a major difference between Taq Polymerase and your DNA Polymerase?Works in extremely hot environment


Question Answer
Heat mixture up to high temperature. What happens t the DNA?the hydrogen bonds will break.
Taq polymerase will bind to the DNA strands and start making DNA.
Step 3: Cut DNA
Question Answer
99% of DNA is the same between 2 humans. The part that is the most variable are thetandem repeats.
VNTRVariable Number Tendem Repeats.