Making sense of the environment

icer215's version from 2016-08-25 18:26


Question Answer
Bottom-up processingData driven process, Object recognition by parallel processing and feature detection, Brain first combines individual sensory stimuli into a cohesive image, then emotional response, brain
Top-down processingConceptually driven process, Objects recognition by memories and expectations, Quick recognition of an object occurs first, then analysis of details comes next
Perceptual OrganizationA process that forms a complete picture by applying all the sensory ideas about an object through top-down/bottom-up processing. Apply information about depth, form, motion, and constancy helps to complete the picture
DepthSeeing the objects in 3D in a 2D space
Binocular cuescues depend on the eyes
Monocular cuescues depends on one eye
FormFigure ground and Grouping
Figure groundorganization of the visual field into objects that makes object to stand out from the background
Groupingorganization of stimuli into coherent groups


Question Answer
Perceptual OrganizationProximity, Similarity, Continuity, Connectedness, Closure
Gestalt PrinciplesRules of organization of perceptual scenes/objects/patterns
Figure groundDifferentiate an object from the background
ProximityIf objects are close together, they will be perceived as a group
SimilarityObjects that look similar to each other
ContinuityEye compels to move through an object and continues to another
ClosureObject is not completely enclosed, but can fill in the missing information to identify the object
Selective AttentionFocusing on a specific object while simultaneously ignoring irrelevant information e.g. Visual and auditory, Can occur consciously and subconsciously, Distractions can disturb selective attention, Depends on level of focus and concentration in an individual, Helps us to filter out unnecessary information
Divided attentionis needed to perform two or more tasks at the same time. e.g. Driving + talking to a passenger or talking on the phone. e.g. Studying + listening to music
Often times, performance on at least one of the tasksdeclines while carrying out multiple tasks – there are limitations (capacity in our system). e.g. Becomes less aware of surroundings while driving + talking to a passenger. e.g. Less study materials are studied while listening to music
Many variables that can affect our attentionwhile carrying out multiple tasks simultaneously. e.g. level of difficult of tasks, skills, emotions, etc.


Question Answer
Sleep DisordersDreaming, Sleep disorder, Types of treatment
DreamingDuring certain stages of sleep (mainly during REM stage), incidence of involuntary images, ideas, sensations, and emotions in the mind, Length of a dream varies, You can remember dream when you wake up during REM phase
Sleep disorderAlso known as somnipathy, Disorder of sleep patterns, In severe case, it can affect physical, mental, social, emotional functions in a person, Caused by various sources
Common disorders includeInsomnia disorder, Narcolepsy, Night terror, Sleep paralysis
Insomnia disorderDifficult falling asleep or continuing sleep. No particular cause is scenically found
NarcolepsyExcessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at inappropriate times
Night terrorDuring sleep, feeling of terror abruptly awakens a person
Sleep paralysisTemporary paralysis of the body before or after sleep
Types of treatmentMedication, Rehabilitation, Behavioral and psychotherapeutic treatment, Hypnosis treatment
HypnosisInteractive therapeutic technique designed to relax and focus one’s mind to change one’s habit or fear by instructing and suggesting different methods
Medical benefits of HypnosisTreat chronic pain conditions, Reduce symptoms of dementia, Treat sleep disorders
During relaxed statea person can focus better to open to take suggestions easier
MeditationA practice to train one’s mind, Promotes relaxation of mind and ease mental stress, Helps to develop patience, compassion, generosity, etc.
Defined in variety of waysTypically, psychological definition stresses the role of attention


Question Answer
States of ConsciousnessAlertness & Sleep
AlertnessState of active attention. Ready to respond to stimuli
Lack of alertness can lead to several conditionsNarcolepsy, Sleep deprivation, Depression, Chronic fatigue syndrome
SleepNatural state associated with inhibited sensory activity and most of voluntary muscles
Stages of sleepNon-REM stage 1, Non-REM stage 2, Non-REM stage 3, REM (Rapid eye movement), Sleep cycles
Non-REM stage 1Between sleep and wakefulness. e.g. Easier to wake up. Muscles are active, Eyes moves slowly, Around 5-10 minutes, Sensation of falling may occur (sudden muscle contraction)
Non-REM stage 2Light sleep, Theta activity, Eye movement stops, More difficult to wake up
Non-REM stage 3Deep sleep stage, Slow wave sleep (SWS), Delta activity, Body repairs and regrows tissues, build bones and muscles, and strengthens the immune system during NREM sleep stages, Increase in age = shorter span of sleep
REM (Rapid eye movement)Occurs 90 minutes after falling asleep, First period lasts about 10 minutes and gets longer from then on up to an hour, Heart and breathing rate increases, Intense dreaming
Sleep cyclesBetween REM and non-REM sleep. Usually NREM1 ➙ NREM2 ➙ NREM3 ➙ NREM2 ➙ REM cycling four or five times per night
Sleepis controlled by circadian rhythms and sleep-wake homeostasis
Circadian rhythmsInternal clock in our body, Affected by temperature and light and dark, Controls enzymes/hormones, Balances between the need for sleep between sleep episodes, Changing the light-dark cycle can reset the sleep cycle (jet-leg)
Internal clock in our bodyLocated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in hypothalamus. SCN receives light information from the eyes and control the circadian clock


Question Answer
Controls enzymes/hormonese. High concentration of neurotransmitter adenosine causes sleepiness, e. Release of hormones melatonin makes you sleepy
Consciousness-altering DrugsTypes of consciousness altering drugs and their effects on the nervous system and behavior
Psychoactive drugs alter the state of consciousness
Chemical substanceschange awareness, attitude, consciousness, and behavior
Hallucinogensmimic serotonin and epinephrine, Alters consciousness and cause hallucination. Marijuana: Enhanced perception, intoxication (mild). LSD, PCP, mescaline: Hallucinations, enhanced perception
Opioidsnatural pain reducer, Alter consciousness. Morphine: Headache, restlessness, irritability. Heroin: More addictive than morphine with same side effects
Depressantsincrease production of GABA and decrease production of acetylcholine, Slows heart rate and respiration, relieve pain, sleep. Alcohol: Loss of coordination, dizziness, nausea, loss of consciousness, impaired judgment
Stimulantdopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin uptake is blocked, Mood enhancement and increased energy. Nicotine: Negative health effects and dependence may occur. Caffeine: Dependence may occur
Drug addictionSubstance dependence. Develops when drug is repeatedly consumed and shows withdrawal effects when consumption stops. e.g. Negative effects. Out of control drug use: Compulsive engagement
Mesolimbic pathwayDopaminergic pathway in the brain (refer to the diagram below) = rewards system.
Starts in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)of the midbrain ➙ connects to the nucleus accumbens ➙ increase the dopamine release in the pathway ➙ addiction