Major Problem Set... Bio. Evo.

mipabuyi's version from 2017-05-08 04:00

Section 1

Question Answer
Select the best example of change by a transformatioal processA mutation in a single Staphylococcus bacterium allows it to resist the most effective antibiotic prescribed by doctors.
The Earth was created by a supernatural being during six 24 hour periods about 6000 years ago. The preceding description best fits which type of creationism?Young Earth Creationism
Theodoius Dobzhansky"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."
Lamarck "All known living bodies are sharply divided in to special kingdoms, based upon the essential differences which distinguish animals from plants, and in spite of what has been said, I am convinced that these two kingdoms do not really merge into one another at any point."
Mathlus "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the Earth to produce subsistence for man."
Gould"I believe, with all my heart, in a respectful, even loving, concordat between the magisterial of science and religion."
Nodes on a phylogeny represent the common ancestors of the species at the tips of the branches.True
What scientific theory are Lyell and Hutton most closely associated with?Uniformatarianism
What theory supports the endosymbiosis theory?1.) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a double membrane. 2.) Genes in both the mitochondrion abd cholorplast are more closely related to bacterial genes than any eukaryotic genes. 3.) Mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genome.
What were the first organisms on Earth to perform photosynthesis? Cyanbacteria
Origin of life on Earth3.5 bya relative dating of fossils
Cambrian Explosion540 mya relative dating in fossils
Origin of Photosynthesis 3.2 mya Dramatic increase in oxides found in sedimentary rocks
Which of the following analyses is least likely to exhibit tokogeny? Phylogeny of modern bats
Extinct species can be included on phylogeniesTrue
Which two biological processes would be likely to cause homoplasy in a phylogenetic analysis?1.) Loss of morphological trait among small sub group of the most recent common ancestor who had that trait. 2.) Convergence of morphological traits due to selection for similar conditions.
Which of the following are still found on Earth today?Synapsids, Dinosaurs, Lepidosaurs
CondantsSome of the earliest vertebrates, they were jawless and had very little hard tissue other than their teeth.
AmmonitesClose relatives of the modern squid, they had shells and were very common in the Mesozoic oceans.
PlacodermsThese were the earliest jawed fish
TrilobitesMarine arthopods that were very numerous throughout the Paleozoic era.

Section 2

Question Answer
On average, which of the following types of point mutations would have the largest effect on the phenotype of an organism?A substitution at the second position i n the codon of a gene
Because the genetic code is degeneratemultiple codons are synonymous; they code for the same amino acids.
The ultimate souce of all DNA variation is mutations
High mutation rates are detrimental to survival, therefore we see a general trend across all species towards lower mutation rates.False
Things needed for evolution via natural selection?Variation, Heritibility, fitness, and geneflow
ExaptaionA plant species develops long leaf petioles that provide no advantage, but become part part of the genetic diversity of the species.Over generations it develops to become benefical
Antagonistic pleiotropycontrols more than 1 trait; one beneficial, and one bad
Frameshift mutationa mistake made during DNA replication
Evidence from a long running selection of experiments in E. Coli suggestthere is significantly different outcomes due to unpredictability of mutations
In addition to genetics, which of the factors below has a major impact on speed at which a beneficial allele will become fixed in a population?The strength of selection for that beneficial allele
Which of the following populations would suffer the most from inbreeding depression?A plant that is nearly wiped out by human activity, however the species survives because of one remaining individual that can self-fertilize.
The frequency of negative mutations found in a population is called genetic load. What two opposing factors determine the genetic load of a population?mutation rate, and force of natural selection

Section 3

Question Answer
What was the original process of mapping genes' relative onto chromosomes?Cross breeding experiments that quantified the amount of linkage disequilibrium between linked genes
Compensatory mutationAntibiotic resistant bacteria initially have a much longer cell cycle than non-resistent bacteria is found to have the same cell cycle as the non-resistant strain.
Clonal InterferenceA population
Haplotype blockThe analog of selective sweeps in prokaryotes, this is found in eukayotic organisims and is caused by when natural selection for an advantagous gene works so quickly that crossing over cannot dissipate the genetic linkage between genes.
Transposable elementsOne of the major forces for genome enlargement in eukaryotic prganisms
A very complex adaptive landscape tends to maintain a high level of diversity in a taxonomic group.True
Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from the long running artificial experiment on oil content in corn that we discussed in class?Even after one hundred years of artificial selection there is till enough variation in the population that the average oil content can continue to be increased each generation.
Plant genomeMost of the genome is located in the nucleus, however there are also small amounts in two different organelles. Most likely to show evidence of a recent genome duplication event.
Bacterial genomeFound on a single strand of circular double stranded DNA Genome that is most similar to the common ancestor of all living things
Viral genomeSmallest of all genomes, almost no non-coding DNA
Comparison of the genomes of closely related bacteria has determined that genome rearrangement in this group is very rare.False
Codon Usage BiasThis is possible because the degeneracy of the DNA code, and often results in increased translational efficiency
Which of the following demographic events tends to leave a pattern of low diversity in chloroplast and mitochondrial genes and a higher diversity in nuclear genes? Recent leading edge expansion
What are characteristics of Hox genes?Found next to each other, all transcription factors, have a homodomain
What is not a characteristic of Hox genes?They are found in plants but not in animals
Speciation is usually a relatively slow process, however there are some examples such as polypolid specitaion that occur rapidly. True
The pattern of punctuated equilibrium seen in some fossils is best explained by which mode of speciation?Peripheral
Which of the following species concepts would be the hardest to apply to asexual populations?Biological species concept
Gene knockoutI use an RNAi to target and destroy transcripts of one gene during early development
Transgenic gene expressionI take a jelly fish that glows in the dark and put it into an early mouse zygote.

Section 4

Question Answer
Bacteria sometimes gain new genetic material through HGT, they also reproduce sexually when conditions are optimal through prokaryotic meiosis.False
Muller's RachetBacteria accumulate slightly deleterious mutations at a higher rate than sexually reproducing organisms.
Red Queen HypothesisSexually reproducing species do better than asexual species because the increased diversity allows them to evolve quickly enough to better resist parasites.
Eusocialdivision of roles within the society in regards to reproduction.
Batesian Mimicryone toxic and one safe model
Mullerian Mimicryboth toxic models
Developmentex. Carrying extra weight increases the cellular stress and damages insulin receptors
Proximateex. A patient has insulin receptors, however they are unable to effectively bind to insulin so that glucose will be removed from the blood.
PhylogeneticHumans are part of a large taxonomic group of mammals that are more susceptible to diabetes.
Evolutionary Some ethnic groups have much higher rates of diabetes than the general population because for many generations their ancestors had a diet that was very low in fats and carbohydrates.

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