Major Intra- & Extracellular Electrolytes

allelipraise's version from 2017-06-22 20:06

Section 1

Question Answer
ElectrolytesSubstances that dissociate or ionize into particles which carry electric charge.
ElectrolytesVary in concentration in particular fluid compartment.
Three Fluid Compartmentsโ€ข Intracellular fluid (45-50% of body weight) โ€ข Interstitial fluid (12-15% of BW) โ€ข Plasma or vascular fluid (4-5% of BW)
Milliequivalents (mEq)๐‘š๐ธ๐‘ž=๐‘š๐‘” ๐‘œ๐‘“๐‘ ๐‘ข๐‘๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘๐‘’ ๐‘‹๐‘“๐‘Ž๐‘๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ / ๐‘€๐‘œ๐‘™๐‘’๐‘๐‘ข๐‘™๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ ๐‘Š๐‘’๐‘–๐‘”h๐‘ก

Section 2

Question Answer
ChlorideMajor extracellular anion
ChlorideMaintains: โ€“ proper hydration โ€“ osmotic pressure โ€“ normal cation-anion balance in the vascular and interstitial fluid compartment.
Chlorideโ€ข Preferred in dosage form preparations. โ€ข Removed from the blood by glomerular filtration and reabsorbed in kidney tubules.
Hypochloremiaโ€“ Salt-losing nephritis โ€“ Metabolic acidosis (DM, renal failure) โ€“ Prolonged vomiting with loss of Cl- as HCl.
Hyperchloremiaโ€“ Dehydration โ€“ Decreased renal blood flow found in CHF โ€“ Severe renal damage โ€“ Excessive chloride intak

Section 3

Question Answer
Phosphate (as HPO42-)Principal anion of the intracellular fluid compartment
Phosphate (as HPO42-)โ€“ Hexoses are metabolized as phosphate esters โ€“ Buffer system (HPO42-/H2PO4-) โ€“ ATP โ€“ Calcium metabolism โ€“ Bone and tooth development
PO43- and HPO42poorly absorbed
H2PO4- absorbed from the intestine
PhosphateUsually correlates with serum calcium values
Sodium MetaphosphateNaPO3/Grahamโ€™s Salt
Sodium MetaphosphateUsed as water softening agent
Hyperphosphatemiaโ€“ May be found in hypervitaminosis D โ€“ Renal failure โ€“ Hypoparathyroidism โ€“ Can lead to kidney stone (phosphatic urinary calculi)
Basic Aluminum Carbonate [Al(OH)CO3]: BasaljelยฎTreatment for Hyperphosphatemia
Hypophosphatemiaโ€“ Vitamin D deficiency (rickets) โ€“ Hyperparathyroidism โ€“ Lack of phosphate absorption โ€“ Long-term use of antacid therapy โ€“ Problem in erythrocyte glucose metabolism
Phosphateโ€ข Used as tonics (no validity) โ€ข Phosphoric Acid (Carbonated drinks)

Section 4

Question Answer
Bicarbonate2nd most prevalent anion in the extracellular fluid compartment
Bicarbonate โ€ข Most important buffer system (along with carbonic acid)
Bicarbonateโ€ข Low level โ€“ Metabolic acidosis โ€ข High level โ€“ Metabolic alkalosis

Section 5

Question Answer
SodiumPrincipal cation in the extracellular fluid compartment
Sodiumโ€ข Functions โ€“ Normal hydration โ€“ Osmotic pressure โ€ข Excreted by the kidneys (regulator)
Hyponatremia (low serum level of Na) โ€“ Extreme urine loss โ€“ Metabolic acidosis โ€“ Addisonโ€™s disease, with decreased excretion of antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone โ€“ Diarrhea and vomiting โ€“ Kidney damage
Hypernatremia (increased serum level of Na)โ€“ Hyperadrenalism (Cushingโ€™s syndrome), with increased aldosterone production โ€“ Severe dehydration โ€“ Certain types of brain injury โ€“ Excess treatment with sodium salts
Sodium Chemical Properties: very active โ€“ stored under the inert liquid such as kerosene to retard the acton of air and mositrure upon it or in air-tght containers.

Section 6

Question Answer
PotassiumMajor intracellular cation
โ€ข Has diuretic action โ€ข Low or high level of K is dangerous! โ€ข Active Transport Mechanismโ€ข Has diuretic action โ€ข Low or high level of K is dangerous! โ€ข Active Transport Mechanism
Hypokalemia (Hypopotassemia)โ€“ Myocardial function, flaccid and feeble muscles โ€“ Low BP โ€“ Caused by vomiting, diarrhea, burns, hemorrhages, diabetic coma, IV infusion of solutions lacking K (a dilution effect) โ€“ Overuse of thiazide diuretics โ€“ Alkalosis
Hyperkalemia (Hyperpotassemia)โ€“ Occurs in kidney damage โ€“ Acidosis โ€“ Can cause cessation of heart beat (potassium arrest).

Section 7

Question Answer
CalciumCalcium โ€ข 99% found in bones โ€ข 1% โ€“ Extracellular fluid
Calciumโ€ข Indispensable cation relating to the functional integrity of the voluntary and ANS โ€ข As a factor in proper cardiac function โ€ข As a factor in blood coagulation โ€ข As the structural basis of the skeleton and like tissue.
CalcitoninSecreted by the C cells in the thyroid as a response to high Ca levels in the blood
Parathormone (PTH)Secreted by the chief cells in the parathyroid as a response to low Ca levels in the blood
Hypocalcemia renal failure, hypovitaminosis D, hypoparathyroidism, hypersecretion of calcitonin, Malabsorption, acute hyperphosphatemia
Hypercalcemia Hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D; bone neoplastic diseases

Section 8

Question Answer
Magnesium2nd most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid
Magnesiumโ€ข 50% of total body Mg is combined with Ca and P in bone. โ€ข Essential component of the following: โ€“ enzymes, protein synthesis โ€ข Neuromuscular system โ€ข Used pharmacologically for its muscle depressant effect
Hypomagnesemiaโ€“ Malnourishment (primary cause) โ€“ Pregnancy
Hypermagnesemiaโ€“ Excessive ingestion of Mg-containing antacids โ€“ Reduced renal function
Magnesiumโ€“ Present in chlorophyll