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Main Concepts

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xecoyeku's version from 2017-06-10 21:59

Clinical

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Babies be careful using oxygen supplementationOxygen suppresses EPO production
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Main Concept

Question Answer
What electrolytes does the low volume state have? Increase total Na, Decrease serums Na & Cl & K & Ca2 (Bound to albumin)
What pH does low volume state have?Alkalotic(except diarrhea, Renal tubular Type II & DKA) because Aldo dumps H+
What pH does vomiters have?Alkalotic because you vomit out H+ -> low volume state
What pH does diarrhea have?Acidosis because stool has bicarb from pancreas
What happens if pulse increase greater than 10 on standing?Hypovolemic shock
What happens if pulse increase less than 10 on standing?Autonomic dysfunction
Symptoms of low energy state?CNS - MR, Dementia, Decreased activity / Cardiovascular - CHF, pericardial effusion / Muscle weakness - SOB, weakness, Impotence, distillation, urinary retention, constipation
Symptoms of low energy state in rapidly dividing cells?Dry skin, brittle nails, loss of hair, BM suppression, endothelial & endometrial & breast atrophy, lungs SOB with infection, Kidney PCT affected first, GI nausea vomiting & diarrhea, Urinary retention, azoospermia
Symptoms of low energy state with cancer?Skin, GI, Bone marrow Cancers
What are the most common SIGN of the low energy state?Tachypnea & Dyspnea
What are the most common SYMPTOM of the low energy state?Weakness & SOB
Most common infection of LESUTI & Respiratory
What is the most common cause of death in LESHeart Failure
Explain all restrictive lung diseaseInterstitial problem Decreased diffusion & perfusion / Small Stiff lungs( decrease VC ) / Trouble breathing FEV1/FVC ratio >80 / ABG - decrease pO2-> Increase RR -> Decrease pCO2 -> Increase ph
Restrictive lung disease CXR?Reticulonodular pattern, ground glass appearance -> DIE FROM Corpulmonale
Restrictive lung disease examplesNM diseases(breathing out is passive), drugs, autoimmune
Restrictive lung disease txPressure support on ventilator, Increase O2 & RR, Inspiratory time. Decrease in TV
Explain all obstructive lung diseaseObstructive airway problem(bacterial), big mucus filled lungs (Increase RV, Reid index ->Increase Airway thickness/airway lumen), Trouble breathing out FEV1/FVC <0.8, ABG -> Increase pCO2 -> Increase RR, Decrease pH
COPD die fromBronchiectasis. Tx - Manipulate rate on ventilator , Increase RR, Increase expiratory time & O2
What symptoms does a more likely to depolarize state have?Brain - Psychosis, seizures, jitterniess / Skeletal muscle - muscle spasms, cramps / SM - Diarrhea / Heart - Tachycardia, arrythemias
What symptoms does a less likely to have depolarize state have?Brain - Lethargy, mental status changes, depression / Skeletal muscle - Weakness, SOB / SM - Constipation / Heart - Hypotension, Bradycardia
What is the humoral immune responseB cells and Neutrophils patrol the blood looking for bacteria
What is the cell mediated immune response?T cells and Macrophages patrol the tissues looking for non-bacteria
What is karyolysisNucleus dissolves
What is karyohexxisNucleus Fragments
What is PyknosisNucleus turns in blobs "pick blobs"
What is apoptosisProgrammedcell death -> quiet no inflammation, nucleus guides it
What is necrosisNon-programmed cell death -> noisy inflammation, nucleus destroyed first
What does high GABA levels lead to?Bradycardia, lethargy, constipation, impotence, memory loss
What state does estrogen mimic?The neuromuscular disease state (estrogen muscle relaxant)
What is the CBC for every vasculitis?DECREASE RBC, Platelets, INCREASE WBC, Tcells, MP, schistocytes, ESR
What is the time line of inflammatory response?1HR- Swelling / DAY 1 - PMNs showup at 4hrs, predominate at 24 hrs / DAY 3 - PMNs peak / DAY 4 - Macrophages/t-cells / DAY 7 - Macrophages/T-cells peak, fibroblasts arrive / DAY 30 - Fibroblasts peak / MONTH 3-6 - Fibroblasts complete fibrosis
Blood macrophage?Monocytes
Brain macrophage?Microglia
Lung macrophage?T1 pneumocytes
Liver macrophage?Kupffer cells
Spleen macrophage?Raticulo Endothelial Cells
Lymph macrophage?Dendritic cells
Kidney macrophage?Mesangial cells, found in the macula densa, (renin found in juxtaglomerular cells)
Peyers Patch macrophage?M cells
Skin macrophage?Langerhans cells
Bone macrophage?Osteoclasts
CT of macrophages exampleHistiocytes, Giant cells, Epitheliod cells
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