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Macrolide Antibiotics

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turlough's version from 2017-10-31 00:54

Section 1

Question Answer
What class of antibiotic does azithromycin belong to?Macrolides
What is the brand name of azithromycin? Zithromax
3 formulations of azithromycinCapsules, tablets and oral suspension.
How does azithromycin work? Azithromycin binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome and disrupts protein synthesis.
7 indications for azithromycin Otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis/tonsilitis, bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections and gonorrhea.
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Section 2

Question Answer
In whom is azithromycin contraindicated?Patients known to be hypersensitivity to any macrolide or ketolide antibiotic.
2 groups in whom should azithromycin be used with caution 1) Patients with significant hepatic disease. 2) Patents with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions.
Why is it important to be cautious when using azithromycin in patients with liver disease. Azithromycin is metabolised in the liver. It the liver is impaired then the drug's levels will be higher.
Why is it important to be cautious when using azithromycin in patients with ongoing pro-arrhythmic conditions? Macrolides are associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias (e.g. TdP) which can lead to cardiac arrest.
5 interactions with azithromycin QT-prolonging agents and Class 3 antiarrhythmic drugs, statins, antacids, digoxin, warfarin
Explain the interaction between azithromycin and QT-prolonging agents and Class 3 antiarrhythmic drugsThis combination increases the risk of cardiotoxicity
Explain the interaction between azithromycin and statins This combination increases the risk of rhabdomyolysis
Explain the interaction between azithromycin and digoxinConcurrent use increases digoxin levels and thus increases the risk of side effects.
Explain the interaction between azithromycin and warfarinConcurrent use increases the risk of bleeding because azithromycin appears to inhibit warfarin metabolism.
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Section 3

Question Answer
How should azithromycin be taken? Azithromycin should be taken at least one hour before or two hours after food.
1 very common side effect of azithromycin Diarrhoea
4 common side effects of azithromycin Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and headache
5 rare but serious side effects of azithromycin Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (TEN), QT-prolongation, Torsades de pointes and hepatitis.
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Section 4

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Section 9

Section 10

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