nibbs06's version from 2017-06-14 05:44

Anatomical Planes & Actions

Question Answer
Sagittal planevertical plane; divides R & L
Coronal (frontal) planevertical plane; divides front and back
Transverse (axial) planehorizontal plane; divides superior and inferior
bilateral lateralityfound on both sides of body
Ipsilateral lateralityfound on same side of body
Contralateral lateralitysomething that occurs on the opposite side of the body, relative to another structure
Flexionbending or decreasing angle
Extensionstraightening or increasing angle
Abductionmove away from midline "bad girls"
Adductionmove closer to midline "good girls"
Lateral (ext) rotationanterior surface of a limb rotates away from midline
Medial (int) rotationanterior surface of a limb rotates towards midline
Pronationmedial rotation of radius so that palms are facing posteriorly
Supinationlateral rotation of radius so that palms are facing anteriorly


Question Answer
Epidermisnourished by the dermis - has no blood vessels or lymphatics
Dermislocation of nerve terminals, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and interlacing collagen and elastic fibers, which account for skin toughness
Subcutaneous tissueSuperficial fascia - made up of loose CT and stores fat - contains sweat glands, superficial blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and cutaneous nerves
Thermoregulation via arrector pili contraction causes hair to stand and causes goosebumps
Thermoregulation via arterioles dilation - fills superficial capillary beds to radiate heat; constriction - minimizes surface heat loss
Deep fascia dense organized layer of CT, devoid of fat & is parallel/deep to subQ; thickness varies - not found everywhere (not in face)
Deep fascia + compartmentalizing segments of the limbsIn limbs, fasical compartments are separated by intermuscular septa (thick sheets of deep fascia), which attach to bone
Define fasciaa band or sheath of CT that wraps/packs/insulates organs or muscles
BursaeClosed sacs/envelopes of a collapsed serous membrane found in areas of friction – provides better movement
Subcutaneous bursaeBursae in the subQ b/ween the skin & bony prominences
Subfascial bursae bursae beneath deep fascia
Subtendious bursae (fxn)facilitates movement of tendon over bone (below tendon/between tendon and bone)
Synovial tendon sheathselongated bursae that wrap around tendons, usually enclosing them
Why are organs surrounded by bursal sacs?The lubricating fluid between the parietal & visceral layers reduce movement-induced friction of the organ at hand
Visceral layer of bursathe inner layer - in contact w/ the organ
Parietal layer of bursathe outer layer - in contact with body wall


Question Answer
Axial skeleton bones of head, neck & trunk - cranium; Hyoid bone + cervical vertebra; Ribs + sternum + vertebrae + sacrum
Appendicular skeletonBones of limbs + those that form the pectoral & pelvic girdles
Diaphysisshaft/central part of bone
Epiphysisend part of long bone - initially grows separately from the shaft
MetaphysisWide part of long bone b/ween epiphysis and the narrow diaphysis
Epiphyseal platehyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis of a long bone - growth occurs here
Facetarticulating surface - smooth + flat, covered w/ cartilage
Fossahollow or depressed area
Tuberclesmall raised eminence
tuberositylarge rounded elevation/nodule
condylerounded, knuckle-like articulating area
Synovial jointcapsule w/ outer fibrous layer & lined by serous synovial membrane
Fibrous jointjoins bone via fibrous tissue
Cartilaginous jointjoins bone via hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
Accessory ligaments (purpose)strengthen synovial joints
Extrinsic accessory ligaments of synovial jointsaccessory ligaments that are separate from the joint capsule
Intrinsic accessory ligaments of synovial jointsaccessory ligaments that are a thickening of a portion of the joint capsule


Question Answer
Tendonsextension of muscles - attach to bone; provides flexibility and motility; tough/round chorded structure
Aponeurosis tendon that provides strength & durability; thin + sheath like structure
Muscle Toneeven when "relaxed", muscles are always contracted slightly; assists in joint stability, posture maintenance & keeps muscle ready to respond
Isometric contractionno change in muscle length; Muscle tension(force) increases above tonic levels to resist an antagonistic force (i.e, gravity); maintains upright posture – acts as fixators or shunts muscles
Concentric contractiontype of isotonic contraction – movement occurs as muscle shortens
Eccentric contractionmuscle lengthens – gradual relaxation while exerting a diminishing force (i.e., walking & neg reps)
Agonistic musclecan be more than 1; concentrically contracts, uses most energy & produces movement
Antagonistic Muscleeccentrically contracts & opposes contraction of agonist
Synergistic muscle1 or more - compliment (assist) primary muscle directly or indirectly


Question Answer
Pulmonary circulation pathway & purposeCircuit from R-Ventricle to L-Atrium; R-Ventricle (Low O2) >> Pulmonary-A >> Lungs >> Pulmonary cap >> Gas Xchange @ alveoli >> Pulmonary-V (High O2) >> L-Atrium
Systemic circulationCircuit from L-Ventricle to R-Atrium; L-Ventricle (High O2) >> Aorta/Arteries >> Capillaries >> Gas Xchange @ tissues >> Systemic-Veins (Low O2 blood) >> R-Atrium
Arteries (wall thickness, pressure, amount of total blood retention & flow direction)thick, high P, 20% of total blood & heart >> body tissue
Veins (wall thickness, pressure, amount of total blood retention & flow direction)thin, low P, 80% of total blood & capillary beds >> heart
Anastomosiscommunications/connections b/ween multiple artery-branches – provide alternative blood flow routes if main pathway is obstructed.
Collateral circulation routesthe re-routing of circulation (requires time to open) around a blocked artery/vein, often as a result of anastomoses.
Clinical relevance of end arteries (true arteries)blockage results in interrupted blood flow to tissue (anatomical true arteries)
Functional true arteriesthey're not true terminal/end arteries & are pseudo-anastomoses (i.e., coronary arteries - have interconnections but don't function as anastomoses)
What are Accompanying veinsveins that accompany & branch around deep arteries - occupy a vascular sheath with the artery and are stretched + lengthened
2 Benefits of Accompanying veinsserve as countercurrent heat exchange - warmer arterial blood warms up cooler venous blood. Form Atriovenous pump - contraction of heart expands arteries & drives venous blood to heart
Function & Mechanism of Musculovenous Pump"milks" venous blood toward heart - muscle belly expands during contraction >> contraction is limited by its deep fascia >>> compresses vein/"milks" it
Function of Venous valvedecreases excessive pressure by breaking up columns of blood - allows blood to move towards the heart


Question Answer
Lymphtissue fluid entering lymph capillaries - consists of xs ECF + plasma proteins, leaked from capillaries in CT
Fxn of Lymphatic systemcollects/filters tissue fluid >> returns to circulation; prevents foreign particles from entering circulation by detecting & trapping them
How does the conditions of edema relate to this systemblockage of lymph-system causes tissues to become swollen with lymph fluid - causing edema
Function of Lymph vesselstransport lymph & chyle – returns to circulation @ jxn b/ween Int. Jugular-V & Subclavian-V
Function of Lymph nodesfilters lymph as it moves towards venous circulation
Function of Lymph Organsorgans that produce lymphocytes – thymus, red bone marrow, tonsils & the solitary + aggregated lymphoid nodules in the walls of the alimentary tract + appendix
Name of lymph trunk + primary tissue/body regions drained - in the root of neckR&L Jugular trunk; drains from one full side of head & neck
Name of lymph trunk + primary tissue/body regions drained – in the root of the neck & shouldersR&L Subclavian Trunks; drains from upper extremity and the superficial fascia + skin of the upper back, the anterior thoracic wall (+breasts) & anterior abdominal wall above umbilicus
Name of lymph trunk + primary tissue/body regions drained – in the deep thoraxR&L Bronchomediastinal Trunks; drains lymph originating from lungs, anterior thoracic viscera & musculature of anterolateral body wall above umbilicus
Name of lymph trunk + primary tissue/body regions drained – in the abdominal cavityLumbar Trunks; drains lower extremities, Ab-wall musculature (below umbilicus), retroperitoneal organs, pelvic organs & ext. genitalia
Name of lymph trunk + primary tissue/body regions drained – in DEEP Ab cavityIntestinal Trunks; drains lymph from GI tract + accessory organs
Axillary lymph nodes can be palpitated at the (location)Axilla (armpit)
Inguinal lymph nodes can be palpitated at the (location)inferior to inguinal ligament (groin area) – inguinal lymph nodes are divided into superficial & deep groups
Deep cervical chain lymph nodes can be palpitated at the (location)along the course of the Int. Jugular vein in the neck
Lymph that enters via the right venous angle isdrained by the R-lymphatic duct from the R-head/neck, R-thorax + R-back, R-lung & R-upper extremity
Lymph that enters via the left venous angle isdrained by the thoracic duct from the remainder of the body
Role of lymphatic sys & cancercancerous cell can travel via lymphatics – can get filtered @ node but ends up becoming 2nd cancer site

Nervous System

Question Answer
Neuronsstructural & functional units of nervous system
Neurogliaglial cells – support neurons
Dendriteextension of neurons – input of the neuron (receives info)
Axoncarries impulses to/away from cell body
Multipolar neuron function & microstructure2+ dendrites & 1 axon that may have 1 or more collateral branches, most common neuron in CNS & PNS; all motor neurons of sk. Muscle & those of the ANS
Pseudounipolar neurons function & microstructureshort & double processes (axons) extending from cell body that separate into a peripherial process(peripheral axon), which conducts impulses from the receptor organ, to the cell body, and then to a central process(central axon) that continues from the cell body to the CNS; cell bodies are outside of CNS, in sensory ganglia & are this part of ANS.
Function and component structures of CNSbrain + spinal cord; integrates + coordinates incoming/outgoing neural signals & carries out higher mental functions
Nucleus (CNS)collection of nerve bodies in CNS
Gray matter (CNS)made up of nerve cell bodies
White matter (CNS)made up of interconnecting fiber tract systems
Function & component of PNSnerve fibers + cell bodies outside of CNS; conducts impulses to/away from CNS
Nerve fiber (PNS) vs Nervenerve fiber – found in PNS; has axon, neurolemma and surrounding endoneurial CT
Neurolemmacytoplasmic membrane of Schwann cells of nerve fibers that surround axon + separate it from other axons; can be mylinated or unmyelinated
Gangliongroup of cell bodies outside of CNS – can be motor (autonomic) or sensory
Nervemade up by a bundle of nerve fibers outside the CNS; CT coverings & blood vessels
Somatic Afferentbody sensory info going to CNS; sensations from skin (exteroceptive sensation) or proprioceptive sensations
Somatic Efferentbody motor information coming from the CNS, to the effector organ
Visceral Afferenttransmits subconscious viscderal reflex sensations from organs/blood vessels to CNS
Visceral Efferenttransmits impules to smooth muscle + glandular tissues; has presynaptic and postsynaptic fibers