MA111 Final Review

heyguysitsclaire's version from 2016-06-07 04:03

Section 1

Question Answer
What is a pulsoxan oximeter that measures the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood in pulsating vessels, especially the capillaries of the finger or ear
Percussion Hammer Used to test neurologic reflexes
Tuning ForkUsed to test hearing
Nasal SpeculumStainless steel instrument that is inserted into the nostril to assist in the visual inspection of the lining of the nose, nasal membranes and septum
Otoscope Permits visualization of the ear canal and tympanic membrane
AudioscopeUsed to screen patients for hearing loss
Ophthalmoscope Used to examine the interior structures of the eyes
Examination Light and Gooseneck LampAdjustable overhead examination light. The gooseneck lamp is a floor lamp with a moveable stand that bends at the neck for use when overhead lighting is not adequate
StethoscopeUsed for listening to body sounds
Penlight or Flashlight Provides additional light to a specific area during examination. Often used to examine eyes, ears and throat
Headlight or MirrorAn ear, nose and throat specialist may wear one of these during an examination of one of these structures. Consists of a light or mirror attached to a headband that fits over the examiners head. A headlight provides direct light on the area being examined, the mirror reflects light from the examination light into the area
Laryngeal Mirror and Laryngoscope The Laryngeal mirror is a stainless steel instrument with a long, slender handle and a small, round mirror. It is used to examine areas of the patients throat and larynx that may not be directly visible
Vaginal SpeculumTo obtain the cels for a Pap smear or to visually examine internal female reproductive structures, the vaginal speculum is inserted into the vagina to expand the opening
Lubricant Water soluble gel used to reduce friction and provide easy insertion of an instrument for visual examination
AnoscopeShort stainless steel or plastic speculum that is inserted into the rectum to inspect the anal canal
ProctoscopeUsed to visualize the rectum and anus
SigmoidoscopeUsed to visualize the rectum and sigmoid colon
InspectionLooking at areas of the body to observe physical features. The examiner inspects the patients general appearance, including movements, skin and membrane color, contour and symmetry or asymmetry
Palpatation Touching or moving body areas with the fingers or hands. The examiner palpates the body to determine pulse characteristics and the presence of growths, swelling, tenderness or pain. Organs can be palpated to assess their size, shape and location. Skin temperature, moisture, texture and elasticity may also be assessed by palpating
PercussionTapping or striking the body with the hand or an instrument to produce sound
AuscultaionListening to the sounds of the body. Can be used on heart, lungs, abdomen and blood vessels
Standing PostitionMale genitalia and hernia, male rectum, prostate, legs, spine, posture, gait, coordination, balance, strength, flexibility
Sitting PostionGeneral Appearance, head, neck, eyes, ears, nose, throat, sinuses, mouth, axilla, arms, chest, breasts, upper back, reflexes
Supine PositionPatient lies flat on back with arms at sides. Chest, abdomen, breasts

Section 2

Question Answer
Dorsal Recumbent PostionPatient lies supine with legs separated, knees bent, and feet flat on the table. Female genitalia and internal organs
Lithotomy Position Basic position for OBGYN. Female genitalia and internal organs
Sims PositionThe patient lies on the left side with the left arm and shoulder behind the body, right leg and arm sharply flexed on the table and the left knee slightly flexed. Male genitalia and hernia, male rectum, prostate, legs, spine, posture, gait, coordination, balance, strength, flexibility
Prone PositionPatients lies on the stomach with the head supported and turned to one side. Back, spine, legs
Knee-Chest PositionPatient kneels on the table with the arms and chest on the table, hips in the air, and back straight. Rectum, female genitalia, prostate
Fowler Position Patient is half sitting with the head of the examination table elevated to 80-90 degrees. Head, neck, chest
Semi-Fowler PositionPatient is half sitting with the head of the table elevated to 30-45 degrees and the knees slightly bent.
Trendelenburg Position The patient lies on back with arms straight at either side, and the head of the bed is lowered with the head lower than the hips, the legs are elevated 45 degrees
Normal for Oral Temp98.6F or 37C
Normal for Rectal Temp99.6F or 37.6C
Normal for Axillary Temp97.6F or 36.4C
Normal for Tympanic or Temporal Temp98.6F or 37C
What things may effect temp?Age, gender, exercise, time of day, emotions, illness
What would Dr recommend for feverConsume clear fluids, keep clothing and bedding clean and dry, avoid chilling, rest and eat a light diet as tolerated, use antipyretics to keep comfortable
How do you take a pulse?The pulse can be felt (palpated) or heard (auscutlated) and several pulse points. Cartoid, apical, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial
Pulse Characteristics Rate: number of heartbeats per minute... Rhythm: interval between each heartbeat or the pattern of beats... Volume: the strength or force of the heartbeat
Normal Pulse 0-1110-170
Normal Pulse 1-1090-110
Normal Pulse 10-1680-95
Normal Pulse 16-midlife70-80
Normal Pulse elderly55-70

Section 3

Question Answer
How do you take respirations?Observe the rise and fall of the chest
Normal Respiration Infant 20+ per minute
Normal Respiration Child18-20
Normal Respiration Adult12-20
Normal BP Range <120mm Hg and <80mm Hg
Prehypertension BP Range120-139mm Hg or 80-89mm Hg
Hypertension Stage 1 BP Range140-159mm Hg or 90-99mm Hg
Hypertension Stage 2 BP Range>160mm Hg or >100mm Hg
Why is it important to use the correct blood pressure cuff size?Could cause inaccurate readings
Indentifying Data-- patient MRThe demographic information
Past History-- patient MRAddresses the patients prior health status and helps the physician plan appropriate care for any present illness. Info includes allergies, immunizations,childhood diseases, current and past medications. previous illnesses, surgeries and hospitalizations
Review of Symptoms-- patient MRSpecific questions, such as symptoms or known diseases,related to each system of the body
Family History-- patient MRHealth status of patients parents, siblings and grandparents. This information is important because certain diseases and disorders have familial or hereditary tendencies
Social History-- patient MRCovers the patients lifestyle, such as marital status, occupation, education and hobbies. It may also include information about the patients diet, use of alcohol and or tobacco and sexual history.
What is cerumenEarwax
What is hordeolum?Sty in the eye yo :P
DyspneaDifficult or labored breathing
ApneaNo respiration
HyperpneaAbnormally deep, gasping breaths
HyperventilationA respiratory rate that greatly exceeds the body's oxygen demand
HypopneaShallow Respirations
OrthopneaInability to breath lying down; patient has to sit upright to breathe

Section 4

Question Answer
Why do we drape the patient?It will make the patient more comfortable and make it easier to perform the exam
Why do we put tubes in ears?Tubes help to drain the fluid. Used often on children because they are more likely to get infections
What is conjunctivitis?Pink Eye
How do you test for glaucoma?Do a shit ton of eye tests