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MA 130 Surgical Procedures Final Review

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heyguysitsclaire's version from 2016-07-01 12:17

Section 1

Question Answer
What do pathogens need to grow and thrive?moisture, nutrients (surfaces that are contaminated with organic matter), 98.6F (room temp), darkness, neutral pH (7), oxygen
Sanitationreduces the number of microorganisms on an inanimate object to a safe/relatively safe level. Clean instruments with warm, soapy water w/ mechanical action to remove organic matter and other residue. Lowest Level.
SterilizationAutoclave, gases (ethylene oxide), dry heat ovens, immersion in certain chemical agents. Destroys all forms of microorganisms, including spores or inanimate surfaces. Highest Level.
Disinfection3 levels, highest level destroys most forms of microbial life except certain bacterial spores. Intermediate destroys many viruses, fungi and some bacteria including the one that causes TB. Middle Level
Universal Precautionswash hands, use alcohol based hand scrub, wear clean/nonsterile examination gloves, change gloves between procedures, wear PPE to protect your eyes/nose/mouth/clothes, dispose of single use items, avoid 'sharps' injuries, do not manipulate used needles and use barrier devices
Medical Asepsisdestroys microorganisms after they leave the body and prevents transmission of microbes from one person to another, hands and wrists washed for one to two minutes
Surgical Asepsisdestroys microorganisms before they enter the body/ prevents entry of microbes into the body during invasive procedures, hands and forearms washed 5-10 minutes w/ a brush
How does the autoclave work/sterilize?cleans using steam and pressure, water above boiling, pressure all in inner chamber
Autoclave Tapeapplied to the outside of the material used to wrap instruments and indicates if the item has been exposed to steam
Autoclave Wrapused to help properly sterilize and maintain sterilization
Autoclave Culture Strips used to ensure that spores have been killed
Maintaining a sterile field do not let sterile packages get damp or wet, always face the sterile field to ensure that the area has not been contaminated, hold all sterile items above waist level, place sterile items in the middle of the sterile field, 1 inch border is considered to be contaminated, do not spill any kinds of liquids onto the sterile field, do not cough/sneeze/talk over the sterile field, do not reach over the sterile field
Fenestrated Draphave an opening to expose the operative site while covering adjacent areas
Phase 1 of Wound Healing 1-4 days, body increases circulation. Serum and RBC brought by extra blood form to close the wound and form a scab. Warmth, redness and pain signify the phase is working
Phase 2 of Wound Healing several days to several weeks, scab from phase 1 continues to dry and pull the edges of the wound as closely together as possible
Phase 3 of Wound Healing weeks to years, fibroblasts build scar tissue to guard the area
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Flexionconstricting the muscles
Extension stretching the muscles
Pronationturn in
Supinationturn out
Abductionmove away
Adductionmove closer
Circumductionto move in a circle
Rotationmove the head back and forth
Inversionmove foot(?) out
Eversionmove foot(?) in
Simple/Closed does not protrude through skin; usually treated with a closed reduction
Compound/Openbroken end protrudes through the skin; infection is a major concern; surgery often required
Spiraloccurs with torsion or twisting injuries; appears to be S shaped on radiographs
Impacted one bone segment driven into another
Greenstickcommon injury in children; partial or incomplete break in which only one side of a bone is broken, like a green stick
Transverse at right angles to axis of bone; generally caused by excessive bending force of direct hit on bone
Obliqueslanted across axis of bone
Comminuted bone is fragmented, usually by much direct force
Compressiondamage from application of strong force against both ends, such as a fall; vertebrae susceptible to compression fractures, especially in older adults
Depressedfracture of flat bones (usually the skull), causing fragment to be driven below the surface of the bone
Avulsioncaused by strong force applied to the bone by sharp twisting, pulling motion of attached ligaments or tendons resulting in a tearing away of bone fragments
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
What is an orthopedist a physician who corrects congenital or functional abnormalities of the bones with surgery, casting, and bracing
Anesthetics reversible loss of sensation, used in surgeries
Antiseptics a substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms
What is the CDC?Center for Disease Control and Provention
What is OSHA?Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What is cryotherapy? local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy
What is thermotherapy?local of general use of heat in medical therapy
Point 1- Chain of Infectionreservoir, place on which or in which organisms grow and reproduce, examples include man and animal
Point 2- Chain of Infectionexit from reservoir, escape route for organisms. examples include nose, ear, throat, mouth, intestinal tract, urinary tract and wounds
Point 3- Chain of Infectionvehicle of transmission, means by which organisms are carried about. examples include hands, equipment, instruments, china and silverware, linens and drapes
Point 4- Chain of Infectionportal of entry, part of the body where organisms enter. examples include any break in skin or mucus membrane, mouth, nose and genitourinary tract
Point 5- Chain of Infectionsusceptible host, person whose body cannot fight off organism once it enters the body and who therefore typically becomes ill
memorize