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M6 Part I

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pajevawe's version from 2016-11-03 11:19

Section

see also M6 Part II

Section 1

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Every day the kidneys filter nearly __________ of fluid from the bloodstream.200 liters
The perirenal fat capsule is a transparent capsule that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidneyFalse
The _______ is the darker, reddish-brown area of the kidney, which exhibits cone-shaped tissue masses called renal pyramidsrenal medulla
Under normal resting conditions, the ____________ arteries deliver one-fourth of the total cardiac output (about 1200 ml) to the kidneys each minuterenal
__________ are the structural and functional units of the kidneys, which carry out the processes that form urine.Nephrons
In what part of the nephron is plasma filtered?Renal corpuscle
The net filtration pressure (NFP) is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the bloodFalse
In situations where there is an extreme change of blood pressure (mean arterial pressure less than 80 or greater than 180 mm Hg), extrinsic controls take precedence over intrinsic controls.True
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Section 2

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homeostatic imbalances is indicative that glomerular blood pressure is too low to cause filtrationAnuria
The reason glucose is detected in the urine of individuals with uncontrolled diabetes is because:the transport maximum for glucose has been exceeded.
Water can leave the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.False
Give 3 things tubular secretion is important for (1 of 3) eliminating undesirable substances or end products that have been reabsorbed by passive processes
Give 3 things tubular secretion is important for (2 of 3) controlling blood pH
The descending limb of the loop of Henle is relatively impermeable to solutes and freelyTrue
Alcohol and caffeine are both examples of diuretics.True
tubular secretion is important for ridding the body of excess glucoseFalse
Give 3 properties of freshly voided urine in a healthy personClear and pale to deep yellow in color..Slightly aromatic in odor..A given volume of urine has a greater mass than the same volume of distilled water
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Section 3

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Slightly basic in pH..is a physical characteristic of freshly voided urine in a healthy person..False
The urethra has two functions in men, but only one in womenTrue
Give 3 causes of incontinence in adultsNervous system problems..Emotional problems..Physical pressure during pregnancy
Bladder or renal infection is one of the most common causes of incontinence in adultsFalse
CreatinineA protein metabolite found in skeletal muscle and excreted in urine
GlucoseNot normally found in the urine
Na+Its reabsorption occurs with K+ efflux
UreaA detoxified ammonia compound
Uric AcidA nitrogen waste product from RNA metabolism
Juxtaglomerular cellsSpecialized baroreceptors (mechanoreceptor)
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Section 4

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Juxtamedullary nephronsLong nephrons that deeply invade the medulla
Macula densa cellsSpecialized chemoreceptors
Fibrous capsulePrevents infection from other areas spreading to kidney
Renal fasciaAnchors kidneys
Composed of cone-shaped, dark-red massesRenal medulla
Light tan in appearance and just deep to the capsuleRenal cortex
Small cup-shaped structures at the apex of the renal pyramidsMinor calyces
Flat funnel-shaped tube that enters into the ureterRenal pelvis
Large knot of capillaries at the beginning of the Glomerulus
Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, collectivelyRenal corpuscle
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Section 5

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The capillary pores of the glomerulusFenestrae
Specialized, branched epithelial cells that cling to the Podocytes
Primary site of glucose and amino acid reabsorptionProximal convoluted tubule
The major substance reabsorbed here is water by osmosis.Descending limb
Sodium is reabsorbed actively in this region.Ascending limb
Sodium and water are reabsorbed under hormonal influence in this region.Distal convoluted tubule
The force of blood against the walls of the glomerular capillaries Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Force that pulls fluid back into the glomerulus from the capsular space Colloid osmotic pressure
Pressure exerted by fluid in the glomerular capsule against the fluids coming out of the glomerulus. pressureCapsular hydrostatic pressure
The sum of all the pressures that act at the level of the glomerulus; responsible for the formation of filtrateNet filtration pressure
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Section 6

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Afferent arterioles constrict in response to a rise in blood pressure, thus restricting the flow of blood into the glomerulus.Myogenic mechanism
A drop in flow rate through the nephron or a rise in the osmolality of filtrate triggers regulation by this mechanism.Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
Neural control overcomes the renal autoregulatory mechanisms. Sympathetic branch
A drop in systemic blood pressure triggers the release of an enzyme by the kidneys; the release of the enzyme triggers this regulatory system.Renin-angiotensin system
ADHRegulates water reabsorption at the distal convoluted tubule
AldosteronePromotes reabsorption of sodium at the distal convoluted tubule
ReninEnzyme that catalyzes the formation of angiotensin I
Angiotensin IIA powerful vasoconstrictor that also stimulates the secretion of aldosterone
Usually seen in association with trauma to the kidneys or along the urinary tract Erythrocytes
Elevated levels are expected in a diabetic Glucose
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Section 7

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Elevated levels are evidence of starvation or untreated diabetes mellitus Ketone bodies
Often seen after excessive physical exertion (working out) Proteins
Blood vessel leading directly into the glomerulusAfferent arteriole
Capillaries that surround the tubules of the nephronPeritubular capillaries
These are the first branches of the renal artery after it enters the hilum of the kidneySegmental artery
Specialized blood vessel leading away from the glomerulusEfferent arteriole
In the renal sinusInterlobar artery
Between the cortex and medullaArcuate artery
Exiting the kidneyRenal vein
Vasa rectaSurrounding the loop of Henle
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Section 8

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How is Na+ reabsorbed?Active transport using ATP
Major calyces are:large branches of the renal pelvis.
Micturition is a sacral reflexTrue
The basic functional unit of the kidney is the:nephron
The blood supply to the nephron is the:afferent arteriole
The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the:renal corpuscle.
The most important factor affecting the glomerular filtration rate is:blood hydrostatic pressure.
When the concentration of ADH increases:less urine is produced.
Which process results in increased glomerular filtration in response to hormone release?Renin-angiotensin mechanism
Which structure is the muscular tube that delivers urine to the bladder?Ureter
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Section 9

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Which substance would NOT normally be expected in urine?Protein
Flow of urine (selected structures)calyx..renal pelvis..ureter..urinary bladder..urethra
If the efferent arteriole constricts while the afferent arteriole remains unchanged, the glomerular..filtration rate:..increases
The presence of glucose and ketone bodies in the urine can indicate:untreated diabetes mellitus
The urinary system produces rennin which helps regulate blood pressureTrue
The urinary system metabolizes vitamin D to its active formTrue
The urinary system produces erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell formationTrue
The urinary system carries out the majority of gluconeogenesis in the bodyFalse
The renal hilum lies on the ______ surface of the kidney.medial
The _____________ attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall.perirenal fat capsule
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Section 10

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Renal ptosis would lead to:hydronephrosis due to urine backup
The renal ___________ is continuous with the ureter.pelvis
Which of the following cells in the kidney play a major part in the regulation of body water and..Na+ balance?..Principle cells
Give 3 selected layers in the glomerular membranevisceral membrane..fenestrated endothelium..basement membrane
The renal capsule is a layer of the filtration membrane in the glomerular membraneFalse
The _____________ attaches the kidney to the posterior body wall...Renal ptosis would lead to:..The renal ___________ is continuous with the ureter.mesangial cells
Give 3 selected functions of the renal tublessecretion...formation of urine...reabsorption
Is filtration a function carried out in the renal tubules?No
The following 3 selected events stimulate the release of renin from granular cellshemorrhaging or dehydration...stimulation of the granular cells by the sympathetic nervous system...reduced stretching of the granular cells
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Section 11

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inhibition by the macula densa cells stimulates the release of renin from granular cellsFalse
The energy needed for secondary active transport is provided by the:concentration gradient established by Na.
Which of the following is the countercurrent multiplier in the kidney?The loop of Henle of a juxtamedullary nephron
Urea transport into the medullary collecting duct is enhanced by ________.ADH
Which of the following substances is the standard substance used to measure the GFR?Inulin
Which of the following substances is the largest component of urine by weight after water?Urea
3 selected items associated with primary nocturnal enuresisA small bladder capacity..Unusually sound sleep..Inadequate nocturnal ADH production
Females over the age of 60 years is associated with primary nocturnal enuresis?False
Juxtamedullary nephrons account for more than 80% of the nephrons.False
Reabsorption occurs through the tubule wall and into the peritubular capillariesTrue
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Section 12

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The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to sodium chloride and actively..transports water into the surrounding interstitial fluids...False
The juxtaglomerular apparatus contains both osmoreceptors and mechanoreceptorsTrue
The kidneys are located in the lower abdominal cavity at the L5 to S3 region.False
The myogenic control mechanism reflects the fact that vascular smooth muscle tends to contract..when stretched...True
The renal cortex contains the glomeruli.True
The thick smooth-muscle layer of the bladder is called the trigone.False
The distal tubule is under control of ADH and aldosterone.True
Blood is carried to the glomerulus via the efferent arteriole.False
The renal corpuscle is composed of the glomerulus and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.True
The stimulus for renin secretion is a drop in systemic blood pressure.True
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Section 13

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Renal clearance tests are conducted to test the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).True
The macula densa is a chemoreceptorTrue
Blood pressure in the glomerulus is higher than in other capillary beds.True
Most fluid in the body is in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment.False
Which of the following is not an electrolyte?Glucose
The most abundant cation in extracellular fluid is potassium.False
Most water is excreted via thekidneys.
ADH acts on the ____________ to ___________ water excretion.kidneys; decrease
Which of the following is characterized by a swelling of cells?Hypotonic hydration
Which of the following would increase sodium excretion?Progesterone
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Section 14

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Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases Ca2+ deposition in the bones.False
Most of the hydrogen ions in the body come from acidic substances in the foods we ingest.False
Most of the hydrogen ions in the body come from acidic substances in the foods we ingest.False
The most important factor that influences K+ secretion is:the concentration of K+ in blood plasma.
Which of the following has the least influence over the pH of blood plasma? the phosphate buffer system..The bicarbonate buffer system..Respiratory rate..The protein buffer system..The phosphate buffer system
Hyperventilation can lead to respiratory alkalosisTrue
One way the kidneys maintain HCO3^(-) balance is by:generating new HCO3^(-)
Someone who is suffocating would develop respiratory acidosisTrue
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Section 15

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Inefficient kidneys puts infants at increased risk for dehydrationTrue
Bicarbonate buffer systemReferred to as the alkaline reserve
Protein buffer systemThe most common buffer system in cells
Phosphate buffer systemUses Na2HPO4 as a weak base
AldosteroneThe hormone that regulates sodium and potassium levels
CalcitoninIts antagonist is parathyroid hormone
HyponatremiaA condition that results from water intoxication
HyperkalemiaAn excess amount of potassium in the ECF
Most abundant positive electrolyte in extracellular fluidNa^(+)
Most abundant positive electrolyte in intracellular fluidK^(+)
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