Updated 2009-06-20 14:39
|Name some functions of the lymphatics.||It is responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues. |
It absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chyle to the circulatory system.
The last function of the lymphatic system is the transport of antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated.
|How does lymph return to the systemic circulation?||Fluid enters lymph capillary through one way canals. They then enter larger lymph vessels through to lymph nodes then to larger lymph vessels. Finally, the fluid is drained into the large neck veins.|
|Name the types of lymphoid tissue.||MALT- mucose-associated lymphoid tissue. Includes tonsils, appendix, and Peyer's patches in the intestine. |
|What are the hallmarks of inflammation?||Rubor |
|What causes the hallmarks of inflammation?||Capillaries are dilated to allow increased blood flow to area, thus the specific increases.|
|Explain the function of phagocytes.||They are white blood cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria and dead or dying cells|
|What is opsonization ?||Opsonization is a process of coating foreign whatnot with proteins that increase phagocyte adherence.|
|How is opsonization accomplished with antibodies?||The Fab portion of the antibody attaches to the epitope on the antigen making it more attractive to phagocytes.|
|Explain the makeup and structure of an antibody.||Antibodies are essentially two sections of a Y. The top portion is called the Fab region and attaches to the antigen via their epitopes. The bottom portion is called the Fc region and binds to certain cell receptors and compliment proteins.|
|How do you get from the genome (of what cell) to the antibody?||B cells carry "immunological memory" and a particular B cell will remember its target antigen. When that antigen is present, the cell will multiply itself and begin to produce its antibody in quantity by clonal expansion.|
|What is compliment and what is its role in immune function?||Compliment is a system of plasma(globulin) and membrane proteins which are activated when opsonizing antibodies are attached to an antigen. They proceed with a cascade effect that causes cell lysis.|
|Explain the difference between humoral and cellular immunity.||The Humoral Immune Response is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). |
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies or complement but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
|What is the reticuloendothelial system?||The cells that grab antigens and their reticular stroma(bed). Ie. T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, reticular cells.|
|What is an antigen? Examples?||Substances which provoke an immune response and are its targets. Bacteria, virus, non-self leukocyte.|
|What are self-antigens? Examples?||Your personal cell labels- you like them, but others may not.|
|What is meant by self tolerance?||This is learning to love your own antigens and let them be.|
|What is meant by immunocompetence?||Being able to take care of yourself. The cells do the job of the immune response when they have to.|
|What is meant by immune surveillance?||Upholding tissue homeostasis. Immune cells act as police on patrol.|
|What is a B cell and how does it provide immunity?||A B cell is a bone marrow derived lymphocyte. They provide immunity by making specific antibodies which bind to antigens because they recognize them.|
|What are active and passive immunity?||Active immunity refers to ones own immune system fighting off an illness and retaining cell memory to combat it easier in the future. |
Passive immunity refers to temporary immunity received from mothers milk or therapeutically.
|What is a naive B cell?||A naive b cell has gone through clonal expansion, but has not been actually exposed to the antigen yet.|
|What is a memory B cell?||A memory b cell is one that has had experience with a certain antigen and has the memory of it so it can fight it again, if needed.|
|What is a plasma cell?||A plasma cell is a circulating b cell which is specialized to secrete antibody copies.|
|What are the general antibodies and their functions?||IgM- produced early in immune response. Largest MW. |
IgD- antigen receptor on surface of B cell. "This is what I do"
IgG- Later in immune response. Most circulating Ab. Permanent.
|What are the selectively made antibodies and their functions?||IgA- mucosal surface immunity. |
IgE- the Ab of allergic reactions.
|What utility might an immortal B cell possess?||"immortal B cells" are the result of uniting a B cell with immunological memory with a tumor cell. The resulting hybridoma provides an endless supply of its antibodies called monoclonal antibodies for pharmacological use.|
|What is a T lymphocyte?||A T lymphocyte is a lymphocyte which resides in the thymus gland. It is used for cell-mediated immunity.|
|What are T cells?||T cells are circulating lymphocytes.|
|Why and where does T cell gene recombination occur?||They participate in gene somatic recombination which restructures them to the specificity necessary to attack cellular threats. They perform this work in the thymus gland.|
|What are the types of T cells?||Helper Ts/CD4 and cytotoxic/CD8.|
|What is the purpose of T helper cells?||When activated by specific antigens, they elicit molecules that are helpful to or facilitate the immune response. will use cytokines or "cell movers"|
|What is the purpose of cytotoxic T cells?||The only cells that directly attack and kill other cells. They circulate the in blood and lymph searching for cells displaying antigens to which they have been sensitized.|
|What are cytokines?||General term used for mediators that influence cell development, differentiation and responses in the immune system.|
|Explain Major Histocompatibility Complex.||The MHC proteins act as "signposts" that display fragmented pieces of an antigen on the host cell's surface. These antigens may be self or nonself.|
|What is MHC I and where is it found?||It coats all "self" cells so that the body will not treat them as foreign invaders.|
|How does MHC I serve the immune response?||They provide the means to signal ctyotoxic T cells that infectious microorganisms are hiding in body cells.|
|What is MHC II and where is it found?||Typically only found on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells/Antigen presenting cells. It picks up peptide fragments from engocytosed vesicles where foreign debris is degraded.|
|How does MHC II serve the immune response?||Displays markers from foreign antigens to helper T cells for recognition and ignition of immune system.|