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Lymphatic System

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lilypoh's version from 2016-04-20 07:28

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is a subsidiary circulation entwined with the blood circulation. It provides a channel through which excess tissue fluid i returned to the blood stream.

 

Whole blood never leaves the capillaries but leucocytes and the "passengers (oxygen, food and water) can. Once outside the capillaries they are carried by a derivative of blood plasma call tissue, or interstitial, fluid. this fluid circulates throughout the tissue, delivering food, oxygen and water to the cells and collecting carbon dioxide and other waste. HOwever, when it has finished it work and needs to return to the capillaries, not all of it can pass through the capillary walls because the pressure inside the capillaries is too high. The fluid that is left is picked up by a different set of capillaries, call the lymphatic capillaries.

Lymphatic System

Question Answer
Lymphatic capillariesThe fluid that is left is picked up by a different set of capillaries. This capillaries have larger pores in their walls than blood capillaries and the pressure inside them is lower.
Lymphthe fluid in lymphatic capillaries and vessels. is a fluid similar to blood plasma
Lymph nodesis a filter. it does the filtering
Lymphatic ductsit is to collect the fluid before entering the right and left subclavian vieins and returning to the bloodstream.
Lymphatic system consists oflymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and lymphatic ducts
What is does lymph containsit contains waste materials as well as leucocytes and lymphocytes (inorder to ingest bacteria and ell debris) but NO erythrocytes.
The function of the lymphis to transports excess waste (that blood cannot carry) away from tissues; adds extra leucocytes and lymphocytes to the blood.
How does lymph move?- Contraction of skeletal muscles collapses the vessels and because there are valves present, lymph is directed towards the upper part of the body. - a slight oncoming pressure from the tissue fluids, - movement of the lymp towards the thorax during inspiration, - suction; negative pressure hleps to pull the lymph upwards into the lymphatic ducts, where lymph collects before being recirculated.
Oedemaany obstruction of the lymphatic floe results in the swelling of tissues due to the collection of excess fluid.
What are lymphatic capillaries?the vessels which work with blod to collect excess tissue fluid, lymphatic capillaries eventually unite to form lymphatic vessels.
Lymphatic capillaries occur at wherethey occur in all spaces between tissues, except in the CNS
The function of lymphatic capillariesto carry excess tissue fluid away from tissue space
What are Lymphatic vessels ?these are vessels which transport lymph around the lymphatic system.
Lymphatic vessels' valvesis to keep the lymp moving centripeatlly (in the direction of the heart) and prevent back flow.
Lymphatic vessels have 3 layers ofan outer layer of fibrous tissue, a middle layer of muscular and elastic tissue and an inner layer of endothelial cells.
What is the function of lymphatic vessels?is to collect lymph from the lymphatic capillaries and then covey lymph towards the heart. Many lymph vessels run into the subscutaneous tissue (beneath the dermis).
What is the connection between blood and lymph?the lymphatic system is a subsidiary circulation, helping the blood circulation to carry out its functions. It removes excess fluid from tissues and carries large particles that cannot pass through the smaller pores of the blood capillaries.
What are lymph nodes?they are small and medium sized lymph vessels open into lymph nodes, which are stretegically plcaed throughout the body.
Afferent vesselis transports lymph to the node
efferent vesselis transports the filtered lymph back to the system.
Structure of lymph nodesis made of lymphatic tissue, surrounded by a wall of tough, white fibrous tissue supported by inward strands of fibrous tissue called trabeculae.
Trabeculae fibrous tissue which supported by inward strands.
Function of the lymph nodes?to filter the lymph, remove and destroy harmful micro-organisms, tumour cells, damaged or dead tissue cells, large protein molecules and toxic substances. This filtering system prevents toxic materials from reaching the bloodstream and causing septicaemia.
Another function of the lymph nodesto produce new lymphocytes and antibodies and add them to the lymph as necessary; - lymphatic tissue cells within the node may become activated to form antibodies against a particular infection. They may then continue to form antibodies fro several years or even a lifetime.
Lymph nodesThey are made of lymphatic tissue. they contains many types of cells, - phagocytes (white blood cells that engulf and destory harmful (pathogenic)waste and bacteria. - lymphocytes (white blood cells that produce antibodies), cells dividing to form new lymphocytes.
What are lymphatic ducts?They are lymph passes into two main lymphatic vessels, or ducts
The right lymphatic ductThis is only 1.5cm long, positioned at the root of the neck and empties into the right subclavian vein to rejoin the circulatory system.
What is the function of right lymphatic ductreceives all the drained lymph from the right side of the head, chest and neck and from the right arm.
The thoracic ductThis is the largest lymphatic vessel. It is 40cm long extending from the second lumbar vertebra to the root of the neck and empties into the subclavian vein to rejoin the circulatory system.
The function of thoracic ductcollects and drains lymph from the left side of the head, the neck, both lower limbs, the left side of the trunk and the left arm.
SpleenThe spleen is an organ which both produces and destroys cells. It is a non-essential organ and is sometimes removed due to damage after accidents, as other organs can perform the same functions. The spleen lies on the upper left-hand side of the abdomen.
The spleen Structure the spleen has an outer capsule of fibrous tissue extending into a network of fibrous strands called trabeculae, supports the splenic pulp which consists of several different types of cells.
Function of spleen - forms new lymphocytes; - destroys thrombocytes and erythrocytes helps to remove foreign particles from the circulation; - helps to fight infection, becoming enlarged in certain diseases, e.g. malaria and typhoid fever acts as a blood reservoir. Blood sinuses within the spleen normally hold a large amount of blood which is pushed into general circulation if the spleen contracts. Contraction usually occurs two or three times a minute, but in cases of shock or even during exercise, the spleen may contract faster and for a longer period to help maintain pressure
OEDEMA/WATER RETENTION Swelling due to excess fluid in the tissue spaces and serous cavities
IYMPHOEDEMA Oedema associated with an obstruction in the lymphatic vessels
HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA Cancer of the lymphatic tissue.
CELLULITELumpy deposits of body fat especially on women' thighs.
INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS (GLANDULAR FEVER)An acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious;
LYMPHADENITISThe inflammation of lymph nodes.
Non-odgkin lymphomaa type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system; causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally reproduce, eventaully causing tumours to grow.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroidities)is an autoimmune disease where the body's own T-cell attack the cells of the thyroid
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates inlymphocytes of the immune system. They often originate in lymph nodes, presenting as an enlargement of the node (a tumour).
Systemic lupus erythematosusan inflammatory disease of connective tissue ith variable features including fever, weakness, joint poins and skin lesions on the face, neck or arms.
Lymphatic system links to Circulatory transports excess waste and toxins, which the circulatory system cannot cope with, away from the cells and tissues. Also works closely with the circulatory system to strengthen the body's immunity.
Lymphatic system links to Digestivelymphatic vessels in the small intestines (inside the lacteal of the ileum) help with the absorption of fats during digestion. These are then transported around the body in the circulatory system and distributed to cells to be used as energy.
Lymphatic system links to Muscularlactic acid formed when overexercising muscles, or from tension and general fatigue in the muscular system, is drained away in the lymphatic system.
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