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Lymph nodes

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cogito13's version from 2016-07-08 02:30

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Question Answer
Upper limb, lateral breastAxillary
StomachCeliac
Duodenum jejunumSuperior mesenteric
Sigmoid colonColic --> inferior mesenteric
Rectum, anal canal above the pectinate lineInternal iliac
Anal canal below the pectinate lineSuperficial inguinal
TestesSuperficial and deep plexuses --> para-aortic
ScrotumSuperficial inguinal
Thigh (superficial) Superficial inguinal
Lateral side of dorsum of the footPopliteal
Right lymphatic ductdrains right arm and right half of the head
Thoracic ductdrains everything else
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Question Answer
Th1make INF-gamma and IL-2, inhibited by IL-10 (made by Th2 cells)
Th2make IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, inhibited by INF-gamma (made by Th1 cells)
What causes differentiation into the Th1IL-12
What causes differentiation into Th2IL-4
Th1 cells are humoral or cell-mediatedcell-mediated
Th2 cells are humoral or cell-mediatedhumoral
What inhibits MHC II from binding antigenlack of acidification in the lysosomes
What does MHC I have that MHC II doesn't haveB2 microglobin
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Question Answer
HLA-A3hemochromatosis
HLA-B27Psoriasis, ankylosing spondilitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Reiter's syndrome
HLA-B8Addisons disease, myasthenia gravis
HLA-DR2Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture's
HLA-DR3Diabetes mellitus type I
HLA-DR4Rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type I
HLA-DR5Pernicious anemia --> B12 deficiency, Hashimoto's thyroiditis
HLA-DR7Steroid-response nephrotic syndrome
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Question Answer
NK cells mode of actionuse perforin and granzymes to induce apoptosis in the infected cell
How does endotoxin/lipopolysacchride cause it's responseBinds to endotoxin receptor CD14 on MACROPHAGES directly stimulating them
What is the costimulatory signalAPC = B7 and Th cell = CD28 --> needed for the activation of T cell
How are cytotoxic T cells activatedIL-2 from the Th cells
What causes B cell switchingIL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CD40 ligand on Th cell
How many antigens can one B cell make antibodies for1
Which portion of the antibody binds to the antigenFab
Which portion of the antibody activates complementCh2 part of the heavy chain Fc (IgG and IgM only)
Which part of the antibody detemines the isotypeFc portion of the heavy chain
Does the light chain contribute to the Fc portionNo, only the heavy chain does
How does IgA exist when secretedas a dimer
Which antibody mediates the type I hypersensitivity reactionIgE
Ig idiotypespecific for a given antigen
Ig isotypeIg epitope common to single class of Ig
Ig allotypeIg epitope that differs among members of the same species
What does an antigen need to be presented by MCH to T cellspeptide antigen (ie. polysaccharide capsule and LPS from gram - will not activate T cells)
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Question Answer
IL-1Fever, osteoclast activating factor
IL-2stimulates T cells
IL-3stimulares Bone marrow
IL-4stimulates IgE production
IL-5stimulates IgA production, stimulates growth and development of eosinophils
IL-8, LTB4, C5aNeutrophil chemotactic
What happens if a patient has a IL-12 deficiencyThey can suffer from severe TB infections and you treat them with IFN-gamma
How can you stain for monocyte, macrophagesCD14 - you will see them in PPD
Since mature red blood cells are the only cells that do not express MHC class I what kills babesia and malariaNK cells and they are stained with CD56
Which complement binds bacteriaC3b
Which complement mediates anaphylaxisC3a and C5a
What happen if you are C1 esterase deficienthereditary angioedema and you can't use ACE inhibitors in these patients
Deficiency of C3increased susceptibility to type III hypersensitivity reactions and recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections
Deficiency of C5-C8Neisseria bacteremia
Deficiency of DAFparoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
What do inteferon-a and beta doinhibit viral protein synthesis
What does interferon-gamma doincrease MHC I and II expression and antigen presentation in all cells
Stellate shaped granulomaCat-scratch fever (Bartonella henslae)
What are patients with silicosis more at risk forTB infections due to the inhibition of macrophages by the silica
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Question Answer
AntihistoneDrug-induced lupus
AnticentromereScleroderma (CREST)
Anti-Scl-70 (anti-topoisomerase I)Scleroderma (diffuse)
AntimicrosomalHashimotos
AntimitrocondrialPrimary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-Jo-1Polymyositis, dermatomyositis
Anti-Ro, Anti-LaSjogren's syndrome
Anti-U1 RNPMixed connective tissue disease
Anti-smooth muscleautoimmune hepatitis
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Question Answer
Bruton's agammaglobulinemiano germinal follicles (no maturation of B cells) - recurrent respiratory infections in a young boy (X-linked recessive)
Hyper IgM-syndromNo CD40 ligand on Helper T cells --> not able to switch Ig Class --> severe pyogenic infections
Multiple SclerosisType IV hypersensitivity ie. Th1 cells activate macrophages against self antigens --> demyelination
Selective IgA deficiencyMost common immunodeficiency in the US --> increased susceptibility to Giardia Lamblia
Wiskot-AldrichThrombocytopenia, eczema, and increased IgE; X-linked disease; increased risk for non-hodgkin's lymphoma
Syngeneic graftbetween identical twins with the same HLAs
Most important effector cells for MMR and other live viral vaccinesCytotoxic T cells (CD8+ and CD3+)
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Question Answer
Who causes damage to the lung during pneumonianeutrophils - they come in and release cytokines that damage the area
Digeorge syndromecardiac abnormalities, abnormal facies, thymic aplasia, cleft palate, hypocalcemia (tetany), and all from a problem on chromosome 22 (CATCH-22)
Superantigens from S. aureus (TSST-1) and S. pyogenesactivate Th1 cells to produce a ton of IL-2 and INF-gamma; activate macrophages to produce a ton of TNF-a and IL-1
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Question Answer
Postvaccinal lymphadenitis characterized by multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic inclusionsMeasles
What are the pathgnomonic Warthin-Finkeldey cells for and what are they made ofMeasles, fused lymphocytes
Pernicious anemia and Graves disease type of hypersensitivityType II noncytotoxic hypersensitivity
What is the most important factor in getting rid of immune complexesC3b
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Question Answer
Vaccines to Pneumococcus and H. Influenza will only contain what if not paired with a peptideIgM because the peptide is needed for the isotype switch
What is the other name for DiGeorge syndromeVelocardiofacial syndrome
Patients with selective IgA deficiency have an increased risk for developing whatAtopy (they get higher IgE)
People with severe AIDS will have which kinds of immunoglobinsIgM; they won't have the T cells needed for the switch
What is the Arthus reactionSwelling and inflammation following things such as a tetanus vaccine (Type III hypersensitivity - immune complex formation because you've seen it before)
Reiter's syndromecampylobacter, chlamydia, salmonella, shigella, yersinia infection
Tertiary syphillus forms what type of reactiongranuloma mediated by Th1 and macrophages
What orchestrates cell mediated immunityTh1 cells
It's TIME that I learned Wiskot-Aldrich syndromeThrombocytopenia, Infections, LOW IgM, and increased IgE (eczema)
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