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Lung Diseases and Stresses

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imissyou419's version from 2017-02-02 18:25

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Ventilation perfusion matching - obstruction of a bronchiolehypoxia develops in the alveoli beyond the point of constriction. CO2 accumulates in the hypoxic area leading to decrease in pH. In response, there is vasoconstriction and blood flow is directed away from hypoxic area
Ventilation perfusion matching - obstruction of blood flowno increase in PCO2 in these alveoli, lung respond by bronchoconstriction
Pneumothoraxair in intrapleural space,
spontaneous or injury, small spontaneous pneumothorax may resolve without treatment,
treatment may be insertion of a chest tube
Smaller inhaled particlestravel further in the lung (smaller airways or even in alveoli) while larger particles in larger airways
How are particles cleared from the lung?1. mucus that is moved up the airway through ciliary action. 2. alveolar macrophages
What are some gases that can be inhaled that causes damage to lungs?CO,
cigarette smoke (lots of chemicals including CO, cancer, emphysema),
Nitrogen Oxides (yellow smog, cause inflammation of airways)
CO poisoning howCO has 210 fold higher affinity for hemoglobin than O2 (lower amount of O2 carried in the blood)
CO poisoning characteristicsCO = colourless, odourless gas, incomplete burning of fuels,
Initial symptoms: headache, fatigue, shortness of breath; Prolonged exposure results in death,
Prevention: CO alarm.
Treatment: high %O, higher pressure with high O2 to outcompete CO
Emphysemadestruction of alveolar walls of lung, loss of elasticity and SA so CO2 retention (can't exhale b/c no elasticity),
Diagnosis: abnormal pulmonary function/spirometer, chronic cough, shortness of breath (w/ exercise).
Treatment: quit smoking, eliminate exposure to air pollutants, oxygen therapy
neonatal respiratory distress syndromelung is the last major organ to develop during gestation so premature babies have decreased lung compliance due to surfactant deficiency (need a lot of pressure to breath)
Discover of surfactantlipid normally forms bilayers so slow moving to air-liquid interphase so proteins make it faster, get surfactant from cow lung
Acute respiratory distress syndromeLow PaO2 values caused by DECREASED LUNG COMPLIANCE,
Causes: near drowning, smoke inhalation, infection, trauma,
Problems with giving surfactant as treatment b/c lung dysfunction, can use liquid ventilation (perfluocarbon, high O2 solubility, avoid surface tension forces), mechanical ventilation to increase O2 but problem can be stretching and collapsing of lung
Restrictive diseasesdifficulty expanding the lung e.g. fibrosis, obesity, neuromascular diseases
Obstructive diseasesdifficulty exhaling e.g. airway narrowing in asthma, emphysema, COPD
Asthmamost common, incident rising,
bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation results in wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath.
Asthma attacks can be caused by smoke, dust, exercise, cold air, allergens.
Treatment: bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory
is FEV1s increased or decreased in asthmaticsdecreased from 80%
Obstructive disease VC, TLC, FEV1SVC: normal or decreased, TLC: normal or decreased, FEV1S: decreased
Restrictive disease VC, TLC, FEV1SVC: decreased TLC: decreased FEV1S: increased or normal
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