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Lower Limb Origins, Insertions, Innervations, & Actions

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jacecihe's version from 2017-02-25 21:03

Lower Limb Muscles

MusclesOriginInsertionsInnervationAction
Psoas MajorSides of T12-L5 vertebraie and intervertebral discsLesser trochanter of femurL1-L3 VRFlex femur at hip
SartoriusAnterior superior iliac spine and superior part of notch inferior to it.Superior part of medial surface of tibia.L2, L3 Femoral nerveFlexes, abducts, and laterally rotates femur at hip.
GracilisBody and inferior ramus of pubis.Superior part of medial surface of tibia.L2, L3 Obturator nerve.Adducts femur, flexes leg and helps rotate leg medially.
IliacusIliac crest, iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, and anterior sacroiliac ligamentsTendon of psoas major and body of femur, inferior to lesser trochanterL2, L3 Femoral nerveFlex femur at hip
PectiueusPecten pubis (pectineal line of pubis)Pectineal line of femur.L2, L3 Femoral nerve, May receive a branch from obturator nerve.Adducts and flexes femur.
Rectus femorisAnterior inferior iliac spine and groove superior to acetabulumBase of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosityL2, L3, L4 Femoral nerveExtend leg at knee joint. Flexes femur at hip.
Adductor brevisBody and inferior ramus of pubisPectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur.L2, L3, L4 Obturator nerve.Adducts femur, some flexion.
Adductor longusBody of pubis, inferior to pubic crest.Middle third of linea asperal of femur.L2, L3, L4 Obturator nerve, anterior branch.Adducts femur.
Vastus lateralis*Great trochanter and lateral lip of linea asperal of femur.Base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosityL2, L3, L4 Femoral nerveExtend leg at knee joint.
Vastus intermedius*Anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur.Base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosityL2, L3, L4 Femoral nerveExtend leg at knee joint.
Vastus medialis*Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur.Base of patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosityL2, L3, L4 Femoral nerveExtend leg at knee joint.
Adductor magnusInferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium (adductor part), and ischial tuberosity.Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera medial, supracondylar line (adductor part), and adductor tubercle of femur (hamstring part).L2, L3, L4 (Adductor part). L4 (Hamstring part) Obturator nerve (Adductor part). Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (Hamstring part)Adducts femur Flexes femur (Adductor part). Extends femur (Hamstring part)
Obturator externusObturator membrane; bone around obturator foramen on external surface of pelvis.Trochanteric fossa of femurL3, L4 Obturator nerveExternal rotation of thigh.
Tensor fasciae lataeAnterior superior iliac spine and anterior part of external lip of iliac crestIliotibial tract that attaches to lateral condyle of tibiaL4, L5 Superior glutealAbducts, medially rotates, and flexes femur.
Fibularis brevisDistal two thirds of lateral surface of fibulaDorsal surface of base of fifth metatarsalL4, L5, S1 Superficial peronealEversion and weak plantar flexion of foot
Fibularis longus*Distal two thirds of lateral surface of fibulaBase of first metatarsal; medial cuneiformL4, L5, S1 Superficial peronealAnkle Eversion and weak plantar flexion of foot
Peroneous tertiusFibula in common with lower fibers of extensor digitorum longusDorsal surface of base of fifth metatarsalL4, L5, S1 Deep peronealDorsiflexion and eversion of foot
Inferior gemellusIschial tuberosityInferior border of obturator internus tendonL4, L5, S1 Nerve to quadratus femorisExernal roation of thigh; abduction of thigh when thigh flexed
Quadratus femorisIschial tuberosityPosterior surface of femur between greater and lesser trochantersL4, L5, S1 Nerve to quadratus femorisExternal rotation and adduction of thigh
Extensor digitorum longus*Lateral condyle of tibia; proximal three fourths of anerior surface of fibula; interosseous membrane and crural fasciamiddle anddistal phalanges of lateral four toesL4, L5, S1 Deep peronealExtension of toes 2-5; dorsiflexion and eversion of foot
Tibialis anterior*Lateral condyle of tibia; proximal two thirds of lateral surface of tibia; interosseous membrane; and deep fascia of legmedial cuneiform; base of first metatarsalL4, L5, S1 Deep peronealAnkle Dorsiflexion; Inversion of foot
PlantarisLateral epicondyle of femurCalcaneus (anteromedial to tendocalcaneus)L4, L5, S1 Tibial nerveWeak plantar flexion of foot; weak flexion of leg
Extensor hallucis longus*Middle third of anterior surface of fibula; adjacent interosseous membraneDistal phalanx of great toeL4, L5, S1 Deep peronealExtension of great toe, dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
Gluteus minimus*Lateral surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal linesGreater trochanter of femurL4, L5, S1, S2 Superior glutealHip internal rotation; Abduction of thigh; probably flexion
Gluteus medius*Lateral surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal linesGreater trochanter of femurL4, L5, S1, S2 Superior glutealHip Abduction; probably extnsion and external rotation of thigh
Extensor digitorum brevisCalcaneous (dorsal surface)Extensor digitorum longus tendons to 2nd - 4th toesL5, S1 Deep peronealExtension of 2nd - 4th toes
Extensor hallucis brevisCalcaneous (dorsal surface)Base of proximal phalanx of big toeL5, S1 Deep peronealExtension of big toe
Flexor hallucis brevisCuboid bone; lateral cuneiform bone; tendon of tibialis posterior muscleMedial and lateral sides of base of proximal phalnax of big toeL5, S1 Medial plantarFlexion of proximal phalanx of big toe
Semimembranosus*Ischial tuberosityMedial condyle of tibiaL5, S1 Sciatic nerve - tibial portionFlexion of leg; Extension of thigh; internal rotation of flexed leg
Semitendinosus*Ischial tuberosityMedial surface fi proximal end of tibiaL5, S1 Sciatic nerve - tibial portionFlexion of leg; Extension of thigh; internal rotation of flexed leg
Biceps femoris* - short headShort head - linea aspera of femurHead of fibulaL5, S1 Common peronealFlexion of leg; ER of flexed leg
PopliteusLateral condyle of femurProximal third of posterior aspect of tibia (proximal to soleal line)L5, S1 Tibial nerveInternal rotation of leg on femur; external rotation of femur on leg
Flexor digitorum brevisMedial tuberal process of calcaneus; medial and lateral intermuscular septaMiddle phalanges of lateral four toesL5, S1 Medial plantarFlexion of middle phalanges of lateral four toes
Flexor digitorum longus*Middle third of posterior surface of tibiaDistal phalanges of lateral four toesL5, S1 Tibial nerveFlexion of toes 2-5; weak plantar flexion and inversion of foot
Tibialis posterior*Proximal two-thirds of posterior surface of tiia; proximal two thirds of fibula; interosseous membraneNavicular; cuneiforms; cuboid; bases of second to fourth metatarsalsL5, S1 Tibial nerveInversion of foot; plantar flexion of foot
LumbricalsFlexor digitorum longus tendonsExpansions of extensor tendons of lateral four toesL5, S1 First lumbrical - S1, S2 lateral three lumbricals Medial plantar first lumbrical, Lateral plantar lateral three lumbricalsFlexion of metatarsophalangeal joints; possible extension of interphalangeal joints
Superior gemellusIschial spineSuperior borderof obturator internus tendonL5, S1, S2 Nerve to obturator internusExternal rotation of thigh; abduction of thigh when thigh is flexed
Gluteus maximus*Lateral surface of ilium behind posterior gluteal line; dorsal sacroiliac and sacrotuberous ligaments; dorsal surface of sacrumIliotibial tract; gluteal tuberosity of femurL5, S1, S2 Inferior glutealHip HyperExtension, external rotation, abduction (upper fibers), and adduction (lower fibers) of thigh
Biceps femoris - long headLong head - ischial tuberosity.Head of fibulaL5, S1, S2 Tibial nerveExtension of thigh; Flexion of leg; external rotation of flexed leg
Flexor hallucis longus*Middle half of posterior of fibulaDistal phalanx of great toeL5, S1, S2 Tibial nerveFlexion of great toe; weak planar flexion of foot
Obturator internusObturator membrane; bone around obturator foramen on internal surface pelvisMedial surface of greater trochanter above trochanteric fossa of femurL5, S1, S2 Nerve to obturator internusExternal rotation of thigh; abduction of thigh when thigh is flexed
Dorsal interosseiAdjacent sides of metatarsalsProximal phalanges - #1 to medial side of second toe - #2,3 and 4 to lateral side of corresondingly numbered toesS1, S2 Lateral plantarAbduction of toes
Flexor digiti minimi brevisBase of 5th MTBase of proximal phalanx of little toe (plantar surface)S1, S2 Lateral plantarFlexion of proximal phalanx of little toe
Abductor digiti minimiLateral tuberal process of calcaneus; medial process (small area); intervening surface of calcaneusProximal phalanx of little toe (lateral side)S1, S2 Lateral plantarFlexion and abduction of little toe
Quadratus plantaeMedial and lateral sides of plantar surface of calcaneousLateral and posterior margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longusS1, S2 Lateral plantarAids in flexion of lateral four toes by modifying pull by flexor digitorum longus tendon
Plantar interosseiMedial side of 3rd - 5th metatarsalsMedial side of proximal phalanges of same toesS1, S2 Lateral plantarAdduction ot toes
Abductor hallucisMedial tuberal process of calcaneus; flexorretinaculum; medial intermuscular septumProximal phalanx of big toe (tibial side of flexor surface)S1, S2 Lateral plantarFlexion of big toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
Adductor hallucisOblique head - bases of second to fourth metatarsals; sheath of peroneus longus tendon. Transverse head - capsules of 3rd to 5th MTP ligamentsBase of proximal phalanx of big toeS1, S2 Lateral plantarAdduction and flexion of big toe
Gastrocnemius*Posterior surface of femur just proximal to medial and lateral condylesCalcaneus through tendon-calcaneusS1, S2 Tibial nerveAnkle Plantar flexion; flexion of leg of free limb
PiriformisSacrum (pelvic surface)Greater trochanter of femurS1, S2 S1 and S2 nerve rootsHip External rotation; abduction of thigh when thigh is flexed
SoleusSoleal (or popliteal) line and adjacent surface of tibia; proximal third of posterior surface of fibulaCalcaneus through tendon-calcaneusS1, S2 Tibial nervePlantar flexion of foot
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