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Lower Extremity Test 3

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nicoledemott's version from 2017-12-01 21:57

Section

Question Answer
opening in the fascia lata for great saphenous vein adn lymphatics to pass through Fascia lata
superficial layer of gluteal musclesgluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae
deep layer of gluteal muscles piriformis, obturator internus, superior and inferior gemelli, quadratus femoris
gluteus maximus origin ilium, dorsal surface of sacrum/coccyx, sacrotub lig’t
gluteus maximus insertion iliotibial tract, gluteal tuberosity
gluteus maximus innervation inferior gluteal n.
action gluteus maximus extends/laterally rotates hip, assists in rising from sitting position
sacs of fluid which reduces friction and permits free movementgluteal Bursae
separates gluteus maximus from greater trochantertrochanteric bursa
separates inferior part of gluteus maximus from ischial tuberosityischial bursa
separates iliotibial tract from vastus lateralisgluteofemoral bursa
gluteus medius and minimus origin external surface of ilium
gluteus medius insertion lateral surface of greater trochanter
gluteus medius and minimus innervation superior gluteal n.
gluteus medius and minimus action abducts and medially rotates hip, keeps pelvis level
insertion of gluteus minimusanterior surface of greater trochanter
tensor fasciae latae origin anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
insertion of tensor fasciae latae iliotibial band tract-> anterolateral tubercle (Gerdy) of tibia
innervation tensor fasciae latae superior gluteal n.
action tensor fasciae latae abducts and medially rotates hip, keeps pelvis level
landmark of the gluteal region (specifically marker for the sciatic nerve)piriformis
origin of piriformis anterior surface of sacrum
insertion of piriformis superior border of greater trochanter (after leaving pelvis through greater sciatic notch)
innervation of piriformis nerve to piriformis
action of piriformis laterally rotates and abducts hip
origin obturator internus pelvic surface of obturator membrane
insertion obturator internus medial surface of greater trochanter (after leaving pelvis through lesser sciatic notch)
innervation obturator internus nerve to obturator internus
action obturator internus laterally rotates and abducts hip
what action do all these muscles have in common, prififormis, orturator internus, sup and inf gemelli, quadratus femoris, obturator externus, obturator internusall laterally rotate
origin of superior and inferior gemelli superior- ischial spine, inferior- ischial tuberosity
insertion of superior and inferior gemelli medial surface of greater trochanter
innervation of superior and inferior gemelli superior- n. to obturator internus; inferior- n. to quadratus femoris
action of superior and inferior gemelli laterally rotates and abducts hip
origin of quadratus femoris lateral border of ischial tuberosity
insertion of quadratus femoris posterior intertrochanteric crest
innervation of quadratus femoris nerve to quadratus femoris
action of quadratus femoris laterally rotates hip
origin of obturator externus external surface of obturator foramen
insertion of obturator externus trochanteric fossa of the femur
innervation of obturator externus obturator n.
action of obturator externus laterally rotates hip
origin of obturator internus pelvic surface of obturator membrane
insertion of obturator internus medial surface of greater trochanter
innervation of obturator internus nerve to obturator internus
action of obturator internus laterally rotates and abducts hip
memorize

Section 2 Posterior Thigh Muscles

Question Answer
hamstrings muscles includesemitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris (long head)
origin of hamstrings ischial tuberosity
insertion of hamstrings tibia/fibula
innervation of hamstrings tibial division of sciatic n.
memorize
semitendinosus
Question Answer
origin of semitendinosus ischial tuberosity
insertion of semitendinosus pes anserinus
innervation of semitendinosus tibial division of sciatic n.
action of semitendinosus extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates knee
origin of semimembranosus ischial tuberosity
insertion of semimembranosus posterior part of medial tibial plateau
innervation of semimembranosus tibial division of sciatic n.
artery of semimembranosus extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates knee
origin of biceps femoris (long head) ischial tuberosity
insertion of biceps femoris (long head) fibular head
innervation of biceps femoris (long head) tibial division of sciatic n.
action of biceps femoris (long head) extends hip, flexes knee, laterally rotates knee
origin of biceps femoris (short head) linea aspera
insertion of biceps femoris (short head) tendon of biceps femoris long head
innervation of biceps femoris (short head) common peroneal division of sciatic n.
action of biceps femoris (short head) flexes knee, laterally rotates knee
this nerve supplies skin over buttocks, iliac crest, and sacrumcluneal nerve (sup, middle, inf)
supplies more skin than any other cutaneous nerveposterior cutaneous nerve
this nerve leaves the pelvis through greater sciatic notch superior to the piriformis and supplies the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae lataesuperior gluteal nerve
this nerve leaves the pelvis through greater sciatic notch inferior to piriformis, and supplies the gluteus maximusinferior gluteal nerve
2 division of the sciatic nervetibial and common peroneal which split in distal thigh
which nerve emerges through greater sciatic notch inferior to piriformis, supplies no structures in gluteal region and supplies posterior thigh m’s, all leg and foot m’s, and skin of most of the leg and footsciatic nerve (L4-S3)
leaves pelvis through greater sciatic notch-> supplies superior gemellus and enters perineum through lesser sciatic notch-> supplies obturator internusnerve to obturator internus
leaves pelvis through greater sciatic notch and supplies inferior gemellus and quadratus femorisquadratus femoris
major branches of of internal iliac artertiessuperior gluteal a., inferior gluteal a., internal pudendal a.
artery leaves pelvis through greater sciatic notch superior to piriformissuperior gluteal artery
artery leaves pelvis through greater sciatic notch inferior to piriformisinferior gluteal artery
artery does not supply any structures in the gluteal region or posterior thighinternal pudendal artery
diamond shape depression posterior to knee jointpopliteal fossa
this muscle is superolateralbiceps femoris
this muscle is superomedialsemimembranous
this muscle is inferolateral and inferomedialgastrocnemius
most superficial in popliteal fossatibial nerve
deepest structure in the popliteal fossapopliteal artery
memorize

Section 3 Knee Joint

Question Answer
purely sensory and allows you to feel the side of your footsural nerve
popliteal artery gives ofanterior and posterior tibial artery
anterior tibial artery becomesdorsalis pedis pulse anteriorly
this ligament protects against valgus stressmedial collateral ligament (MCL)
this ligament protects against varus stresslateral collateral ligament (LCL)
this ligament prevents anterior translation of tibia relative to femur and hyperextensionanterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
this ligament prevents posterior translation of tibia relative to femur and prevents hyperflexionPCL Posterior cruciate ligament
c shaped fibrocartilage structure, shock absorptionmenisci of knee
origin of tibialis anterior lateral proximal tibia
insertion of tibialis anterior medial cuneiform, base 1st metatarsal
innervation of tibialis anterior deep peroneal n.
action of tibialis anterior dorsiflexes ankle, inverts foot
origin extensor digitorum longus lateral proximal tibia, medial proximal fibula, interosseous membrane
insertion extensor digitorum longus middle and distal phalanges of 2nd-5th digits
innervation extensor digitorum longus deep peroneal n.
action extensor digitorum longus extends 2-5 toes and dorsiflexes ankle
origin of extensor hallucis longus middle part of anterior surface of fibula
insertion of extensor hallucis longus dorsal base of distal phalanx of great toe
innervation of extensor hallucis longus deep peroneal n.
action of extensor hallucis longus extends great toe, dorsiflexes ankleperoneus tertius (4)
origin peroneus tertius inferior 1/3 of anterior surface of fibula
insertion peroneus tertius dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal
innervation peroneus tertius deep peroneal n.
action of peroneus tertius dorsiflexes ankle, eversion of foot
main n. of anterior compartmentdeep peroneal n.
accompanies anterior tibial a.; descends on interosseous membranedeep peroneal n.
motor to anterior m’s of leg and sensory to 1st web space of footdeep peroneal nerve
small terminal branch of popliteal a.anterior tibial a.
passes anteriorly through a gap in interosseous membraneanterior tibial artery
descends on anterior surface of membrane-> dorsalis pedis a. in footanterior tibial artery
origin of peroneus longus head and superior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
insertion of peroneus longus base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
innervation of peroneus longus superficial peroneal n.
action of peroneus longus everts foot, weakly plantarflexes ankle
origin peroneus brevis inferior 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
insertion peroneus brevis base 5th metatarsal
innervation peroneus brevis superficial peroneal n.
action peroneus brevis everts foot, weak plantarflexes ankle
terminal branch of common peroneal n.superficial peroneal nerve
motor to peroneus longus and peroneus brevis superficial peroneal nerve
sensory to dorsum of footsuperficial peroneal nerve
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
origin of gastrocnemius m. lateral head- lateral condyle of femur; medial head- popliteal surface of femur superior to medial condyle of femur
insertion of gastrocnemius m. Achilles tendon on calcaneus
innervation of gastrocnemius m. tibial n.
action of gastrocnemius m. plantarflexes ankle; fast twitch muscle fibers
origin of soleus m. posterior proximal fibula, middle 1/3 of medial tibia
insertion of soleus m. Achilles tendon on calcaneus
innervation of soleus m. tibial n.
action of solues m. plantarflexes ankle; slow twitch muscle fibers
memorize
“stroll with the soleus, long jump with the gastrocnemius”
Question Answer
origin of plantaris posterior lateral condyle of femur
insertion of plantaris Achilles tendon on calcaneus
innervation of plantaris tibial n.
action of plantaris weakly plantarflexes ankle
origin of popliteus lateral surface of lateral condyle femur
insertion of popliteus posterior surface of proximal tibia
innervation of popliteus tibial n.
action of popliteus when flexing knee from full extension, popliteus externally rotates femur to unlock the knee
origin of flexor hallucis longus inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula
insertion of flexor hallucis longus base of distal phalanx of great toe
innervation of flexor hallucis longus tibial n.
action of flexor hallucis longus flexes great toe
origin of flexor digitorum longus medial posterior surface of tibia
insertion of flexor digitorum longus bases of distal phalanges of 2nd - 5th toes
innervation of flexor digitorum longus tibial n.
action flexor digitorum longus flexes 2nd - 5th toes
origin of tibialis posterior inteross membrane, posterior surface of tibia/fibula
insertion of tibialis posterior navicular, cuneiform, cuboid, calcaneus, bases of 2-4 metatarsals
innervation of tibialis posterior tibial n.
action of tibialis posterior plantarflexes ankle; inverts foot; maintains longitudinal arch
memorize