Lower Extremity Anatomy

kkaitlyn96's version from 2016-11-14 21:35

Section 1

Question Answer
The foot has how many bones?26
how many phalanges14
how many tarsals7
how many metatarsals5
where does trauma most commonly occur in the foot?tuberosity; base of the 5th metatarsal
joints in the phalangesDIP, PIP, MTP, TMT
MTPMetatarsophalangeal joint
TMTTarsometatarsal joint
Sesamoid bonesIn tendons
Most common spot for sesamoid bones in the foothead of first metatarsal
kVp for lower limb50-70kVp

Section 2

Question Answer
Calcaneuslargest and strongest bone of the foot
Posterior portion of the calcaneusheel bone
Most posterior and inferior surface of calcaneustuberosity (heel)
Peroneal trochlealateral side
Sustentaculum talimedial side, means support for the talus
Calcaneus articulates with___ anteriorlycuboid
Calcaneus articulates with ___ superiorly; forming whattalus; forming the talocalcaneal joint
What are the 3 articular facets?Posterior, anterior, and middle facets
Deep depression between posterior and middle facets is the___calcaneal sulcus
Sinus tarsiopening in the middle of subtalar joint

Section 3

Question Answer
Talus2nd largest tarsal bone
Talus articulates with ___superiorlytibia and fibula
Talus articulates with ___ inferiorlycalcaneus
Talus articulates with___ anteriorlynavicular
NavicularFlat and oval shaped tarsal on medial side
Navicular articulates with___posteriorlytalus
Navicular articulates with___anteriorly3 cuneiforms
3 cuneiforms1st- medial, 2nd- intermediate, 3rd- lateral
1st cuneiform articulates withnavicular proximally, 1st and 2nd MT, and intermediate laterally
2nd cuneiform articulates withnavicular proximally, 2nd MT, medial and lateral cuneiforms
3rd cuneiform articulates withnavicular proximally, 2nd-4th MT, Intermediate laterally, and Cuboid laterally

Section 4

Question Answer
CuboidLateral aspect of foot
Cuboid articulates with___ proximallyCalcaneus
Cuboid articulates with___ mediallyLateral cuneiform
Cuboid articulates with___ distally4th and 5th MT
2 Arches of the footLongitudinal and Transverse
Longitudinal archToes to heel- medial
Transverse archPlantar surface to distal tarsals, made of cuneiforms

Section 5

Question Answer
Ankle joint is made up of Tibia, fibula, and talus
Lateral malleolusend of fibula
Medial malleolusend of tibia
Mortise3 sided pocket- medially rotate patient 15-20 degrees
Anterior tubercleFront part of distal tibia
Distal tibia joint surface- also known as Tibia plafond
Tibia plafondroof of mortise
A true lateral showsDistal fibula on posterior of tibia
Lateral malleolus is ___cm or ___ in more distal than the medial malleolus1 cm or 1/2 in

Section 6

Question Answer
Intermalleolar plane through the middle of the tibia and fibula on an axial view
On an axial view the _________ is more posteriorfibula
There is a _________ degree line between the middle of the medial malleolus and the lateral15- 20 degrees
What type of joint is the ankle joint?Synovial, sellar, only flexion and extension

Section 7

Question Answer
Tibiaweight bearing bone
Intercondyloid eminenceSpikey part of proximal end of tibia
Articular facets- also known as- whereTibial plateau- flat parts of proximal end of tibia
Tibial tuberosityAnterior/ front
When the tibial tuberosity comes off it is called__ and what view best shows this?Osgood Schlatters disease- Lateral view of knee
Anterior border/ crestRidge on front, you can palpate to feel this

Section 8

Question Answer
Fibula articulates withtibia proximally and distally, and talus distally
Proximal end of fibulaHead
Extreme top of fibula Apex
Distal end of fibulaLateral malleolus
What are the joints between the tibia and fibulaProximal tibiofibular joint and distal tibiofibular joint
Femurlongest and strongest bone of entire body
Long axis of the femur is _________ degrees from vertical5-15 degrees
PatellaLargest sesamoid bone
Patella is located1/2 in above the actual knee joint
When the leg is flexed the patella Moves down over patella surface
Intercondylar sulcussmooth depression that allows the patella to move up and down on distal anterior femur
2 other names for the intercondylar sulcusPatellar surface and trochlear groove
Intercondylar fossaSeparates condyles
Adductor tuberclemedial condyle on posterior side; important for lateral knee
If you see the adductor tubercle what positioning error has occurred?Underrotation
45 degree flexion showspatella pulled partially down
90 degree flexion the patella does whatpatella moves down over distal femur
Popliteal surfacePosterior femur, above intercondylar fossa

Section 9

Question Answer
Axial knee view shows shows open patellofemoral joint space
Apex and base of the patellaInferior border and superior border
Anterior and posterior surface of patellarough and convex; smooth
LCLLateral Collateral ligament
MCLMedial Collateral ligament
ACLAnterior Cruciate ligament
PCLPosterior Cruciate ligament
All joints of the lower limb except one are Synovial and Diarthrodial
Distal tibofibularFibrous and Amphiarthrodial

Section 10

Question Answer
IP jointGinglymus/ Hinge
MTP jointEllipsoidal/ Condyloid
TMT jointPlane/ Gliding
Intertarsal jointPlane/ Gliding
Ankle jointSellar/ Saddle
Knee joint (Femorotibial joint)Bicondylar
Patellofemoral jointSellar
Proximal tibiofibular jointPlane/ Gliding