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Logical Fallacies

nocikene's version from 2018-02-21 13:47


Question Answer
The personal attack. Ex: I wouldn't listen to that guy's financial advice: he smells disgusting!Ad Hominem
The appeal to popularity. Ex: McDonald's food must be of the finest quality available. Just look how many billions of customers they've served.Ad Populum
Ex: The principal admonished Jimmy; "Shame on you, young man! You know you should never hit a girl!"Appeal to tradition
Ex: Discrimination against skateboarders is just as unfair as discrimination against persons of color.False analogy
Black and white reasoning. Ex: Either you pay me the ten bucks you owe me, or I'll have to declare bankruptcy.False dilemma
Ex: Britney Spears has observed that Einsteins relativity theory is flawed.False use of authority
It happened after; therefore it must have happened because of. Ex: Yesterday, Alejandro made it rain. he washed his car before he left for work.Faulty or Doubtful Causality
Forming a hypothesis from insufficient evidence. Ex: She's wearing stiletto heels and a tight red dress-what a slut!Hasty Generalization
Conclusion does not logically follow from the given premise. Ex: Al says, "Children and teens are targeted by RH Reynolds' Joe Camel ad campaign." Joe himself responds, "Oh, so you think advertising should be censored?"Non sequitur
Ex: The problem with our public education results from the ridiculously powerful teachers' unions.Oversimplification
Ex: Teens who experiment with marijuana are sure to be using hard drugs before long.Slippery Slope
Setting up a false opposition argument for the purposes of knocking it down. Ex: People for the ethical treatment of animals and other animal rights groups protest the use of laboratory animals in medical research. They don't care if we ever find cures for AIDS or cancer!Straw Man
Ex: I'm justified in eating my roommate's last piece of birthday cake. Just last month, she borrowed my Sting CD without asking!Two Wrongs Make a Right
Preventing or discouraging open discussion on an issue. Ex: No man is truly capable of intelligent input on this issue: it's a woman's matter.Poisoning the Well
Arguing for the application of a double standard. Ex: You can't possibly expect Dan to complete this assignment on time-he has a family to support.Special Pleading
Ex: Only a few individuals will truly appreciate the quality of Absolut Citron.Snob Appeal
Offering no real support, sometimes simply restating the conclusion as a premise. Ex: I love America because I'm patriotic.Begging the Question
Asks a question that contains a judgement or assumption. Ex: Has Sharon started pulling her weight in your study group yet?Loaded Question
Evasion by way of the manipulation of language/meaning. Ex: When asked by the police officer if he knew he had run the red light, Randall replied that he hadn't exactly been "running"Equivocation