Logical Fallacies

cevihoku's version from 2016-11-02 17:11


Question Answer
The personal attack. Ex: I wouldn't listen to that guy's financial advice: he smells disgusting!Ad Hominem
criticizing a persons motivation for offering an argument rather than examining the argument itself.
ex: "you just want to do it that way because its more work for me and less work for you"
Attacking the motive
when you reject someones argument because they don't practice what they preach
ex: your parents tell you to quit smoking when they smoke themselves
Look who's talking
when one attempts to justify a wrongful act by citing another wrongful act
ex: if your spouse has an affair it is okay for you to have an affair
two wrongs make a right
prey upon audiences fears
ex: the way the media views isis and plane crashes
Scare Tactics
The attempt to distract from the truth of the conclusion by the use of pityAppeal to pity
the popularity of an idea has absolutely no bearing on its validity
ex: it used to be commonly known that earth was flat, but earth is not flat...
Bandwagon argument
take argument and distort it to make it easier to attack
ex: "I am a Feminist" - oh so you hate men?
Straw Man
arguer tries to sidetrack audience by changing the subject. then claims that the original issue has been settled by the irrelevanceRed Herring
a circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise
ex: "Obama is a Fascist because he is a Fascist"
circular reasoning or begging the question
when the authority we use to support the premise in an argument is unreliable
ex: what ever Oprah says is right
Inappropriate appeal to authority
have a lack of evidence / no evidence and we use that to make our conclusion
ex: "Evolution explains where we came from"
Appeal to ignorance
Reduce an argument to two possibilities and there are no other alternatives
ex: Bush: "whether you are with us or with the terrorists
False Dichotomy
Asking a question that has an assumption built into it so that it can't be answered without appearing guilty
ex: "bob, when did you start cheating on your taxes?"
Loaded question
Presuming that because two events occur together, or one follows the other closely in time that one caused the other to occur
ex: a Volcano erupts after an earthquake
False Cause
Using small numbers to represent the whole
ex: the whole schools sucks because of one bad teacher
Hasty Generalization
Asserting that if we allow A to happen, then Z will consequently happen too, therefore A should not happenSlippery slope
comparing things that aren't comparable
Ex: Criminals and Gun owners
Weak and appropriate analogy
Premises contradict each otherInconsistency

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