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Living Things in their Environment

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juliannamanore's version from 2017-05-05 05:46

Section 1

Question Answer
Food ChainShows the flow of energy within a small group of organisms
What do all food chains and webs start with?The sun
Producersorganisms that use sunlight directly to make food (photosynthesis)
Consumersorganisms that eat producers or other consumers for energy
What are the 4 types of consumers?Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores
Herbivoreseat plants
Carnivoreseat meat
Omnivoreseat both plants and meat
Detritivoresdecomposers that eat dead things
What do primary consumers eat?eats insects and plants
What do secondary consumers eat?eats other animals for energy (carnivores)
What do tertiary consumers eat?eats other carnivores, a carnivore at the top of the food chain (only feeds on secondary consumers)
Food Weba combined food chain
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Section 2

Question Answer
Adaptationsinherited characteristics that an organism needs to survive long enough to reproduce more successfully in its changing environment
What types of adaptations are there?Structural/behavioral
Structural Adaptationactual body parts or coloration that help an organism to survive in their environment
Behavioral Adaptationthe things that organisms do to survive
Populationall the individuals of a species that live together in an area
Demographythe statistical study of populations, make predictions about how a population will change
Three important characteristics of a populationGeographic distribution, population density, growth rate
Geographic Distributionrange, describes the area inhabited by population (area)
Population Densitythe number of individuals per unit area
Growth Ratethe increase or decrease of the number of individuals living in a population over time
Three factors to affect population sizeNumber of births, number of deaths, number of individuals that enter or leave the population
Immigrationthe movement of individuals into an area, can cause a population to increase
Emigrationthe movement of individuals out of an area, can cause a population to decrease
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Section 3

Question Answer
Three factors that affect densityCompetition, parasites and disease, predation
Competitionwhen population becomes crowded, organisms compete with one another for resources
Parasites and Diseaseparasites can limit the growth of a population by stealing food and nutrients from the host, therefore increasing the chance of disease and/or death
Predationpopulations often controlled by predators, predator/prey are directly related in population control in nature
Environmental factors that affect densityTemperature, storms, habitat destruction, drought
Rapid growth rate, majority of human population is:young
Slow growth rate, majority of human population is:middle-aged
Majority of human population is located around what?water
When and why did the world lose a majority of its population?1400s, black plague
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Section 4

Question Answer
Developed countries:has a low infant mortality rate
Devoloping countrieshas a high infant mortality rate, average salary = $800
Ecologythe study of interactions of organisms with its environment
Carbon Footprintthe amount of carbon dioxide or other compounds emitted into the atmosphere by the activities of an individual, company, country
Global Warminguse of machinary by humans seems to be increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the air, carbon dioxide prevents heat from escaping, causes slight worldwide temperature increases
Deforestationcaused by demand for wood products, need for space, farmland, housing, and roads (causes habitat fragmentation, animals and plants are forced into confined areas)
Desertificationmay lead to the formation of a desert or the encroachment of an existing desert onto formerly arable land
Habitat Fragmentation plants and animals are forced into confined areas
Ozone Depletioncaused by aerosol chemical called chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)
CFC'sescapes into the atmosphere, reacts by breaking down the ozone
Ozone (O3)a protective atmospheric layer
UV Rayspenetrates the atmosphere and cause harm to many organisms
Fishing Activitiesdemand for fish nd shellfish, commercials fishing is harmful to the environment in many ways
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Section 5

Question Answer
Invasive Speciesintroduced by people accidentally or intentionally, can cause problems if no natural enemies are present
Biodiversitymany different types of organisms, organisms depend on one another
Natural Resourcesnon-renewable resources include fossil fuels (petroleum, coal)
Renewable Resourcesincludes animals, plants, water, wind, etc
Natural Resourcesrenewable energy sources that include wind power, geothermal energy, ocean currents, solar
Pollutioncan be caused by agriculture, homes, and industry
Agriculture and pollutionDDT, fertilizers, animal wastes (nitrogen)
Homes and pollutionstrong cleaning agents
Industry and pollutiontoxic gases and wastes, acid rain
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