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Lipids + Phosphorous Compds

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btrinh's version from 2017-06-15 01:32

Section 1

Question Answer
glycerol3C each with OH
triglycerideStructure: glycerol + 3 FA; Types: Saturated (C-C) vs. Unsaturated (C=C) -- Function: Energy storage (> carbs, >reduced CH bonds)
phospholipids Structure: glycerol + 2 FA + phosphate/polar grp -- Type: Amhipathic (polar/np regions) --Function: lipid bilayer, fluidity with short unsaturated FAs
steroids Structure: tetracyclic ring (4)-- Function: steroid hormones, cholesterol (stabilizer)
terpenes Structure: isoprene units (C5H8)
monoterpene two isoprene units
sesquiterpenethree isoprene units
diterpenefour isoprene units (mono= 2 units)
triterpene + e.g.six isoprene units (mono= 2 units); e.g. squalene (earwax)
terpenoids + e.g.functionalized terpenes (isoprene skeleton with other elements); e.g. Vitamin A
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Section 2

Question Answer
OrthophosphatePhosphate (PO4 3-)
Pyrophosphate2 Phosphates linked via anhydride linkage (P-O-P bond)
Adenosine Triphospate 3 Phosphates + ribose + adenine
Purines AG- Adenine, Guanine
PyrimidinesCUT- Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
Nucleotideribose sugar+ nitrogenous base + phosphate
Nucleoside ribose sugar + nitrogenous base only
Nucleic acidRNA, DNA made of nucleotides
Nitrogenous base pairings3 H-bonds: GC; 2 H-bonds AT
Ribose vs. deoxyriboseRibose in RNA has OH group on C2
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Section 3

Question Answer
Chromosome packing linear dsDNA wrapped around histones --> nucleosomes --> stacked/packed into chromatin -->chromosomes
Euchromatin lighter, less dense, more accessible to enzymes and proteins; higher transcription and higher gene activity
Heterochromatindarker, denser, not as accessible
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