Linguistics terms

chastah's version from 2017-12-12 05:51

Section 1

Question Answer
morphemesmallest unit of meaning; a unit of meaning within a word
free morphemecan stand on its own as an entire word
bound morphemecannot occur on its own, but only as an affix, e.g. "pre-"
affixmorpheme that attaches to a word and modifies the meaning in some way
circumfixaffix that wraps around the root
nominalizeraffix that creates a noun from the word
verbalizeraffix that creates a verb from the word
rootfoundation of the word
compoundword with two or more roots
allomorphwhen a unit of meaning varies in sound without changing meaning, e.g. "in- vs im-" under different conditions
phonologically conditioned allomorphwhen the changing of the sound depends on the sound preceding it
complementary distributionwhere allomorphs exist in two complementary sets of environments/conditions
mooddeclarative or interrogative
wordan independent, phonologically coherent linguistic unit, containing one or more morphemes, which can fill a particular slot in a sentence
inflectional morphologydoes not change word class; provides predictable meaning change, e.g. "cat --> cats"
derivational morphologychanges word class, e.g. govern --> government
nounsfunction as the heads of noun phrases; cannot take tense or degree
aspectwhether an event is ongoing, completed, or habitual
grammatical relationsubject, object, etc
semantic rolethe role a participant plays in a given situation; agent, patient, instrument, etc
complementa dependent clause that functions as the NP argument of a verb, e.g. "She knew he'd gone"
relative clauseembedded within a NP, modifies the noun, e.g. "Harry, who looked at him..."
subordinate clausetwo phrases are joined by a conjunction, e.g. "where, that, etc" and the second clause relies on the main clause
>identify semantic roles in sentences
>classify a language as analytic/synthetic/agglutinative
>how to do morphological analysis
pragmaticsthe the ways people actually use language to accomplish communicative goals
semanticsmeanings directly encoded in the language/linguistic forms
homonymswords that take the same form but different meaning, e.g. "flatter": comparative adjective or verb
prototypeincludes features central to word meaning, but not sufficient on their own to compose a definition
prototype theoryexemplar-based model of semantics, used to determine most "prototypical/basal" examples, where others vary based on distance from prototype
fusionallanguages with unclear boundaries between morphemes; no 1-to-1 relationship of morpheme-to-meaning
agglutinativeclearly-defined boundaries between morphemes; easily parsed and 1-to-1 morpheme to meaning relationship
polysyntheticlanguages in which words are composed of many morphemes
isolating/analytictendency for each word in a language to have only one morpheme, and allow no affixation
adverbmodifies verbs or adjectives, has a flexibility of position
syntaxset of grammatical structures that allow for the combination of words into phrases and sentences
core argumentsnoun phrases that have a grammatical relationship with the verb
oblique argumentsnoun phrases that do not have a grammatical relationship with the verb
sensestable properties of words and phrases, the ideas they conventionally express
antonymswords with opposite senses
synonymssameness of sense
constituenta moveable syntactic unit; use tests of agreement/coordination, movability, and pronominalization/substitution

Section 2

Question Answer
contextwith whom, where, when you are talking
contextual assumptionswhat the speaker and listener(s) can assume based on context
cooperative principlelisteners and speakers must speak cooperatively and mutually accept one another to be understood in a particular way
Gricean maximsunspoken but instictively used rules that define how we conduct conversation
maxim of qualityonly speak that which is true or for which you have sufficient evidence
maxim of quantitydo not make your reply overly verbose nor too brief for what the situation requires
maxim of relevancebe relevant to what is being said; stay on topic
maxim of mannerbe orderly, be brief, be clear and unambiguous
entailmentslogical inferences that can be drawn from what was said
implicaturesthe intended meaning that the listener is to infer from an utterance, based on context
semanticizationchanges in a word's meaning over time, e.g. "since" used to only mean in time, not because

Section 3

Question Answer
linguistic repertoiresthe full range of linguistic varieties that a person knows how to use
registerspeech variety associated with a particular group and its activity, e.g. "surfer speak"
slanglexical items that are informal and associated with certain demographics or communities of practice
dialectvariant of a language that is mutually intelligible, but likely only spoken by people within a certain location/socioeconomic class/ethnicity
accentthe phonological differences in pronunciation
standarda variety of a language dedicated as "prestigious", and for use across dialects
vernaculareveryday speech
style-shiftingchange in register or to a different variety of the same language based on context
diglossiasituational use of two languages or dialects by a single language community
code-switchingswitching between languages by speakers of both languages, due to changes in content
loanwordword adopted from another language and incorporated into a new lexicon without translation
correlationist view of language changeview that structure of languages reflect how types of speakers see the world
constructionist view of language changeview that structure of languages affect the way their speakers see and understand the world
community of practicegroup of individuals that have an activity and culture in common, and this is reflected in the language they employ

Types of sound change, etc


Question Answer
loss/deletiona sound within a word that goes away over time
excrescenceaddition of a consonant sound over time
diphthongization/breakingsplit of one sound into two sounds over time, usually with regard to vowels becoming diphthongs
monophthongizationVV > V
fusiontwo sounds becoming one sound
prothesis/epenthesisprothesis when a vowel is added to the beginning of a word; epenthesis when a vowel is added within a word
lenitionweakening of a sound over time, i.e. consonant sounds to sonorous (vowel) sounds, such as p>b>v>w>o
types of lenitiondiachronic = over time/historical ; synchronic = limited to a specific point in time
fortitionstrengthening of a sound to become less vowel-like (very rare, historically)
assimilationwhen a sound changes to match some aspect of the sounds near it, e.g. matching in voicing or place of articulation
ablauta vowel change in the middle of a word to denote tense shift, e.g. "run vs ran"
metathesistwo sounds in a word switch position, e.g. "axed" to "asked"
mergerwhen more than one phoneme take on the same sound or become more alike over time, e.g. "Mary, merry, marry"
chain shifta consistent type of related phonemic change, i.e. A>B, B>C, C>D
grammaticalizationlexemes or content words end up conveying grammatical meaning over time, e.g. "will" now means future tense, not "to want"
phonological erosionloss of syllables or sounds, but the meaning is intact, e.g. "I am going to" --> "I'mma"
comparative method of language reconstructiontechnique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor

Language Change

Question Answer
borrowingword from language A is taken into language B
maintenancesome words are borrowed while both languages are maintained
shiftspeakers shift what language they speak, e.g. going from a smaller native language to a more powerful colonizer lang; shift causes interference
morphological adaptationadaptation of just one morpheme of a word
calquee.g. "skyscraper" as "rasquacielos" in spanish, takes two parts of meaning and combines them in another language
semantic loanwhen the semantic field of a word is expanded, and likely has a phonetic surface relation


Question Answer
extensione.g. bring > bring or brung; extends from a common paradigm
levelinge.g. bring > bridged, levels across based on root form (often simple present)
broadeningsemantic broadening is where a word changes to come to mean a more vast scope, e.g. the word "broadcast" used to mean just farming and now can be used for anything that streams electronically
semantic wideningwhen the set of reference is expanded to include all things within the set
semantic narrowingthe set of reference is reduced to fewer things within the set

Hw's 8 and 9

Question Answer
pidginformed through the interaction of two communities; has limited communicativity; not spoken as a native language
creolein form like pidgins, but have native speakers and full communicativity
mixed languagehas some word classes taken from one language and others from another, e.g. Michif has nouns from French and verbs from Cree
lexifierlanguage that provides most of the vocabulary of a language
superstatethe more *socially* powerful language, usually the lexifier
substratetend to provide grammar: syntax, morphology, (small lexical elements)
TAMTense, Aspect, Mood
habitual"used to", "would", "is always"
perfecta completed action
progressiveongoing action/still occurring
realisusually not marked; indicative mood
irrrealismarked; uncertain or unclear time frame; subjective mood; also used for hearsay or if info can't be verified; e.g. "If I were," "would...?" and "he said"

Language change/relatedness

Question Answer
comparative methodreconstruction method of comparing languages and constructing the ancestor; it reconstructs protolanguage allophonic relationships
correspondence setanalogy table of correspondence sounds and phonemic relationships of cognate sets
proto-phonemethe reconstructed phoneme based on correspondence sets
reflexthe reconstructed sound/how the photo-phoneme is realized in descendent languages
inheritancethe language comes directly from the ancestor
borrowingforeign words or features are incorporated from another language
interferencecontinued errors made by the group in speaking a target lang; these result in entering into the target lang
einzelsprachlichindependent changes that occur individually in different branches; means "one-change"
cognateswords hypothesized to have a common ancestor


Question Answer
linguistic paleontologylesicon reconstruction; uses environmental terms, material/tech terms, sociocultural terms
sociological reconstructionsimilar gods' names, religion/uses of similar myths, e.g. oath-breaking punishment

Methods of language change study

Question Answer
paraphyleticwhen some languages are similar to an ancestor language than each other; e.g. how reptiles and birds share an ancestor
monophyleticall descendent languages share similar numbers of features
homoplasyparallel innovation, not necessarily related
symplesiomorphya shared archaism; a feature retained from an ancestor
synapomorphya shared innovation between languages
innovation-linkedthere is no defined proto-language but descendent languages share certain innovations
lexicostatisticsword relatedness used to show language difference
Bayesian phylogenetic analysisneeds trait (character) data; includes evolutionary model (trait model - how traits change) and clock model (how rates vary)
pausea longer than normal time without change
pulsea period of rapid language changes