Linguistics terms. what is....?

marxh's version from 2017-01-24 12:10


Question Answer
phoneticsthe study of speech sounds
IPAinternational phonetic alphabet
phonologystudy of a system of sounds in a language
phonememinimal distinctive unit of speech
etymologythe study of the origin of words
lexisthe vocabulary of a language
lexicologystudy of the vocabulary of a language
morphologypatterns of word formation
morphememinimal grammatical unit
what are the 3 degrees of word modification?inflection, derivation and compounding
inflection of a morphemeuses affixation to create a grammatical variant of the same word. e.g. ing, ed
derivation of a morphemecreates a new word by affixation
compounding of a morphemecreation of a new word by combining two or more morphemes
semantemesingle unit of meaning
homonymwords with the same form (either sound the same or are spelt the same)
what are the two types of homonyms?homographs and homophones
homographwords that are spelt the same
homophonewords that sounds the same
superordinate/hypernymname of a category or set of things e.g. colour - made up of different hyponyms e.g. purple, blue
hyponymthe individual parts e.g. red, blue, green - that form part of a set or hypernym e.g. colour
holonyms and meronymsthe whole and constituent parts
meronymthe constituent parts e.g. steering wheel, chassis - that together form a whole holonym e.g. car
holonyma whole object e.g. a car - that is formed by its constituent parts e.g. steering wheel, chassis
metaphors and metonyms figurative language
metaphorshows similarity between two seemingly abstract things
metonymwhen something is referred to not by name but by associated word e.g. crown for monarchy
collocation words that are likely to appear next to each other that the form of can be changed and have a transparent meaning e.g. commit crime
what other linguistic concepts are semantic fields related to?hyponymy and synonymy
semantic fieldwords that aren't necessarily completely synonymous but used to talk about some generic phenomenon
performative worda word which performs and act by its very utterance e.g. I declare...
Saussure's linguistic signs the signifier and signified
signifiedmeaning and the concept
signifierform and name
Saussure's nomenclaturelanguage is not just a list of names for things
Saussure's valuesconcepts are negatively defined by their difference to other concepts
sapir-whorf linguistic relativism our languages condition our though and limit even what we can think, languages represent different social realities
interlingua translationtranslation through use of intermediary language
Chomsky Universal Grammarall humans share a deep language system to which all languages can relate
chomsky's two components of syntaxprinciple and parameters
Chomsky syntax principle + parameter examplePrinciple a sentence must always have a subject, Parameter whether or not the subject is overtly pronounced
Cohesion of textthe lexical and grammatical structuring - how well it flows
Coherence of textsemantic and pragmatic structures - how easily it can be understood
5 types of cohesive devicesreference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, lexical cohesion
cohesive device - referencean element that uses another word as reference e.g john ---- he, himself, him
cohesive device - substitutionan element is replaced by a different one e.g. so or one
cohesive device - ellipsis an element is omitted then grammatical structure fills the gap e.g. sue bought roses and jackie lilies
cohesive device - conjunctivese.g also, consequently, however - formal marks that establish how clauses relate to each other
cohesive device - lexical cohesionthe use of a lexical item recalls the sense of an earlier one
the two types of lexical cohesionreiteration and collocation
lexical cohesion - reiteration repetition but do not have to refer to same identity e.g. the number of stillbirths has doubled. the deaths...
lexical cohesion - collocationa pair/set of lexical items associated with each other in some way e.g. opposites, hyponyms, holonyms meronyms
implicaturewhen the text implies more than is written
theme of a clausethe subject of the clause
rheme of a clausethe new information about the clause
given before newtheme before rheme
marked languageunusual form of language that makes it stand out
marked themes in EnglishFronted, predicated ''it'', identifying ''wh''
fronted marked language examplean apple, i am eating.
predicated (it) marked language exampleit was me who opened the door
identifying theme (wh-) marked language examplewhat he did was unforgivable
propositional vs expressive lexical meaningpropositional - what is proposed, the concept, expressive - the emotion behind that choice of word
idioma phrase that is not variable and its meaning not variable
fixed expressiondiffers from a collocation in having little variance in form and differ from idioms in having more transparent meanings

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