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Ling Midterm pt.2

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theofordcomme's version from 2016-03-17 13:49

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JK RowlingPeople were tipped off that a recent mystery novel may have been written by JK Rowling. They did an analysis on the mystery novel and one of her known mystery novels, and when they removed all the topic specific material, the n-grams and HFLs from both texts matched closely enough that they determined that JK Rowling wrote it. They took it a step farther and compared other non-mystery texts by Rowling and, once they removed the topic specific content, found the same
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What is voice spectrography / What are "voice prints"? How admissible are they in court (see: Cornett v. State case)?voice prints are the idea that the spectrograms created by a person's speaking voice are unique to that person, similar to a fingerprint. This concept would make it possible to have a collection of voices on file and be able to match an unknown voice using spectrography. The use of the was seen in Cornett and the Elvis song. Elvis's voice matched almost perfectly to the spectrograms from the song in question, showing that he sang the un-attributed song. In Cornett, they allowed for the evidence of the spectrogram to come in because it was cursory evidence. If it was vital to the case, probably not, but under Daubert they determined that it was scientifically sound enough to be heard by a jury
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Tiersmalanguage and the law and all that jazz
McMenamin (Ramsey)determined that Patricia Ramsey was not the writer of the note, too many dissimilarities in the range of variation, the limitations in the data do not imply language disguise or insignificant data, there is sufficient variation to show that this style could not be accidentally replicated
McMenamin (stylistics)different word choices and how we formulate sentences and develop our language
Grant (texts)Danielle Jones went missing and there were texts from her phone that said she was just running away and things like that, they wanted to determine if these texts were actually sent by her or someone else (her uncle). Jenny Nicholl was kidnapped and sent texts from her phone too saying she was fine, suspected to be written by her lover/killer. Grant was able to identify that there were linguistic traits present in texts. In Nicholl, Coulthard analyzed texts that she definitely wrote, and messages that Hodgson definitely wrote. There were issues with Hodgson's messages, four were in question, and two were produced after the fact, giving opportunity of disguise. Coulthard determined that the messages were inconsistent with Jenny's style and that they were more aligned with Hodgson's style. Jaccard's coefficient- measuring a degree of similarity.
Solan (adversarial)theories he evaluated: the legal system is unrealistic about what science can do,
and the forensic community has not adequately developed valid and reliable methods
showed how they can be solve to forward the use of forensic linguistics in the courtroom
McMenamin (stylistic variation)different ways of numbering, dates, times, spelling, grammar, word usage, page formatting, all of these things factor in and can be a dead giveaway, especially if they're inconsistent, each work also has specific style markers
Coulthard (author id)something as simple as a random utterance can have obvious ties to an individual. Many people say "I" but with each additional words, the liklihood of it being said by another person shrinks drastically. "I went to the" is common enough, but the addition of other factors like "I went to the chip factory" make it more distinctive "last Saturday at 5". This shows that each person has specific linguistics traits that are present in both their writing and speaking. Ways to identify typed text messages, ,focusing on the formatting and language styles used.
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