Life-Span (Theories)

breannurban's version from 2015-10-03 03:37

Section 1

Question Answer
Developmental TheoryA systematic statement of concepts, principles, and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
Theories aim to...Organize, predict (source of hypotheses), and explain.
Various theories of development...Psychoanalytic, behaviorism/learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and biological/genetic/evolutionary.
Psychoanalytic TheoryA theory of human development that holds that irrational/unconscious drives, motives, wishes, and conflicts, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
Sigmund Freud's TheoryThere is the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Conscious is the contact with the outside world. Preconscious is the material just beneath the surface of awareness. Unconscious is difficult to retrieve material from and is well below the surface of awareness.
Psychosexual stages of developmentOral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
Erogenous zoneErotic pleasure in a specific region of the body. Freud's psychosexual stages of development involve these pleasure zones.
FixationProblem associated with too much or too little gratification in a stage leading to problems.
Oral stageAges birth to one. Infancy involves the weaning of the mouth.
Anal stageAges one to three. Early childhood involves the anus in toilet training.
Phallic stageAges three to six. In the preschool years, children become aware of their genitals.Oedipus complex occurs!
Oedipus complexExplains the emotions and ideas that the mind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, that concentrates upon a child's desire to have sexual relations with the parent of the opposite sex.
LatencyAges six to eleven. This psychosexual stage does not involve an erogenous zone.
Genital stageAdolescence to adulthood. Reproduction becomes main concern. Genitals are the focus erogenous zone for the rest of a person's life.
IdPleasure principle.
EgoReality principle. Influenced by both the Id and Superego.
SuperegoSocial component that influences decision making by suggesting moral imperatives.

Section 2

Question Answer
Erkson's developmental stagesEight developmental stages, each associated with a crisis that must be resolved for healthy development (polar extremes, most people somewhere in between).
Behaviorism/Learning TheoryEmphasis is put on behavior and environmental causes of behavior. Behavior is learned and shaped by consequences (eg. classical conditioning or punishment). John Watson is the founder of this theory.
ConditioningThe processes by which stimuli and responses become linked/associated and learning takes place.
Classical conditioning (Pavlov)A person or animal is conditioned to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus.
Operant conditioning (Skinner)Learning process by which a particular action is followed by a consequence (either something desired or unwanted).
ReinforcementWhen a behavior receives a consequence and the behavior is strengthened.
PunishmentWhen a behavior receives a consequence and the behavior is weakened.
Social Learning TheoryAn extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior.
ModelingThe central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies/models them.
Cognitive TheoryEmphasizes the structure and development of thought processes over time. Thoughts shape attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Cognitive equilibriumA state of mental balance. Understanding current experiences and ideas.
SchemasMental representations of the world.
AssimilationIncorporate new events into existing schemas.
AccomodationChanging existing schemas or creating entirely new schemas.
Jean Piaget's Stage TheoryQualitative changes in development. Involves the stages sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
Sensorimotor stage (Birth-2)Infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world. Learning is active; there is no reflective or conceptual thought.
Preoperational stage (2-6)Children use language to understand the world. Thinking is egocentric, causing children to perceive the world from their own perspective.
Concrete operational stage (6-11)Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally. Their thinking is limited to what they can personally experience.
Formal operational stage (12-adulthood)Adolescents and adults think about abstract and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally. They can be logical about things they have never experienced.
Information processingCompares human thinking to how computers deal with information. Encoding (inputting), storing, and retrieving information. Focuses on the processes of thought.

Section 3

Question Answer
Sociocultural TheoryTheory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces. Cognitive development is a social activity, not a private discovery.
Guided participationA technique in which skilled mentors help novices lean not only by providing instruction, but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity.
Zone of proximal developmentSkills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help. Provide the help to foster development/growth.
Biological/Genetic/Evolutionary TheoryDevelopment influenced by biological, genetic/hereditary, and evolutionary factors. Learning and environment are not the only factors contributing to human development. NATURE TOO.
Selective adaptationThe process by which humans and other organisms gradually adjust to their environment. Genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely.
GenesConsider both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct, systematic influences that environmental forces have over time on genes.
GenomeThe entire collection of genes. (Like a computer)
EpigenomeRegulates the genes. (Like a software that regulates the computer)
NatureBiological, genetic, and evolutionary influences.
NurtureAll environmental influences (e.g., those proposed by learning and sociocultural theories).

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