A systematic statement of concepts, principles, and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
Theories aim to...
Organize, predict (source of hypotheses), and explain.
Various theories of development...
Psychoanalytic, behaviorism/learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and biological/genetic/evolutionary.
A theory of human development that holds that irrational/unconscious drives, motives, wishes, and conflicts, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
Sigmund Freud's Theory
There is the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Conscious is the contact with the outside world. Preconscious is the material just beneath the surface of awareness. Unconscious is difficult to retrieve material from and is well below the surface of awareness.
Psychosexual stages of development
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
Erotic pleasure in a specific region of the body. Freud's psychosexual stages of development involve these pleasure zones.
Problem associated with too much or too little gratification in a stage leading to problems.
Ages birth to one. Infancy involves the weaning of the mouth.
Ages one to three. Early childhood involves the anus in toilet training.
Ages three to six. In the preschool years, children become aware of their genitals.Oedipus complex occurs!
Explains the emotions and ideas that the mind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, that concentrates upon a child's desire to have sexual relations with the parent of the opposite sex.
Ages six to eleven. This psychosexual stage does not involve an erogenous zone.
Adolescence to adulthood. Reproduction becomes main concern. Genitals are the focus erogenous zone for the rest of a person's life.
Reality principle. Influenced by both the Id and Superego.
Social component that influences decision making by suggesting moral imperatives.
Theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces. Cognitive development is a social activity, not a private discovery.
A technique in which skilled mentors help novices lean not only by providing instruction, but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity.
Zone of proximal development
Skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help. Provide the help to foster development/growth.
Development influenced by biological, genetic/hereditary, and evolutionary factors. Learning and environment are not the only factors contributing to human development. NATURE TOO.
The process by which humans and other organisms gradually adjust to their environment. Genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely.
Consider both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct, systematic influences that environmental forces have over time on genes.
The entire collection of genes. (Like a computer)
Regulates the genes. (Like a software that regulates the computer)
Biological, genetic, and evolutionary influences.
All environmental influences (e.g., those proposed by learning and sociocultural theories).