Life-Span (Prenatal)

breannurban's version from 2015-10-04 04:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Prenatal DevelopmentDivided into three different stages: germinal, embryonic, and fetus.
Germinal period(0-2 weeks) 60% of zygotes do not grow/successfully implant in uterus
Embryonic period(3-8 weeks) Approx. 20% aborted spontaneously (early miscarriage). Major organs develop and the organism is less than 2 inches long.
Fetal period(9 weeks-birth) Approx. 5% aborted spontaneously before 22 weeks (age of viability) or are stillborn (born dead after 22 weeks). The sex organs develop and brain development is significant.
Live birthsOnly 31% of all conceptions result in live births.
BlastocystWhen cells take on distinct characteristics and gravitate toward particular positions: shell (becomes placenta) and nucleus (becomes the embryo); still very fragile and tiny.
PlacentaThis organ (attached to wall of uterus) is the life-support system for the developing embryo and fetus, sustaining life via the umbilical cord.
ImplantationThe process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where the organism can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
The third monthThe fetus has all of its body parts. Weighs approximately 3 ounces and is 3 inches long. Fetus is too small/underdeveloped to live outside of the womb.
Fourth, fifth, and sixth monthsThe heartbeat becomes stronger. The cardiovascular system is more active, and the brain increases about six times its size.
Age of viability22 weeks.
ViabilityLife outside of the womb is possible. If the child is born in the seventh month, it will require intensive hospital care and life-support systems.
Preterm vs. NewbornDepends on the maturation of neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems.

Section 2

Question Answer
TeratogenAgents and conditions, including viruses, drugs (medicinal and psychoactive), and pollutants/chemicals, that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death.
Behavioral teratogensAgents and conditions that do not produce obvious physical defects but harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s behavioral, intellectual, and emotional functioning (e.g., hyperactive, antisocial, learning-disabled).
Risk analysisThe science of weighting the potential effects of a particular event, substance, or experience to determine the likelihood of harm.
Critical periodIn prenatal development, the time when a particular organ or other body part of the embryo or fetus is most susceptible to damage by teratogens.
Threshold effectA situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold).
Interaction effectThe result of a combination of teratogens. Sometimes risk is greatly magnified when an embryo or fetus is exposed to more than one teratogen at the same time.
Protective measuresAvoid smoking, drugs, alcohol, chemicals (cleaning agents), cat litter/raw meat (taxoplasmosis), and radiation.
CervixThis body part must thin (effacement) and dilate 10 centimeters.
APGAR scaleA quick assessment of a baby's body functioning at 1 minute and 5 minutes. Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration. Score of 0,1, or 2 with the best possible score of 10.
AnoxiaA lack of oxygen that, if prolonged during birth, can cause brain damage or death to the baby.
Average birth weight7 1/2 pounds.
Low birth weight (LBW) Less than 5 1/2 pounds.
Full-term38 weeks (266 days)
Pre-term35 weeks or fewer than
Causes of LBWEarly birth, lifestyle choices of the mother, maternal malnutrition, undereating, underweight, multiple births, and other unknown causes.
Consequences of LBWInfant mortality or developmental/cognitive challenges (motor skills, communication, and attention).
Parental allianceCooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual communication to their children . The parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles.
Immigration paradoxMany immigrants that are poorer/have less adequate prenatal care but have healthier newborns. Immigrant women are more likely to be married when pregnant.
Postpartum depression10-15% of all women experience this. A sense of sadness and inadequacy after giving birth. There are differences in duration and severity for every person.

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