Life-Span (Infant-Biosocial)

breannurban's version from 2015-10-05 03:28

Section 1

Question Answer
In two years...Newborns reach half of their adult height, talk in sentences, and express almost every emotion.
Well-baby visitsHealth check-ups that include monitoring the height, weight, and head circumference of the baby.
Growth is...Very rapid, especially in the first year. Infants double their weight by the 4th month and triple it by their first birthday.
What is the weight and height of a 24 month old?The norms are 30 pounds and 32-34 inches.
NormsThe average or standard for a particular population.
PercentilesA number between 0 and 100, indicating % of children below and above that percentile. It is not the specific percentile that is important, but that the doctors see the natural growth curve.
FatThe primary reason for weight gain in the first few months. It provides insulation for warmth and nourishment.
Head sparingWhen nourishment is temporarily inadequate, the body stops growing but the brain does not. The brain is protected.
SleepInfants sleep about 17 hours or more a day. Regular/ample sleep correlates with normal brain maturation, learning, emotional regulation, and psychological adjustments.
REM sleepA stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves. Plays a role in neural organization.
What can sleep patterns be affected by?Birth order (first born have more problems), diet, brain maturation, and child-rearing practices.
Where should infants sleep?Room-sharing (sleeping in same room) without bed-sharing (sleeping in the same bed) is recommended. Evidence can reduce SIDS by as much as 50%.
Brain developmentA newborns skull is disproportionately large. It is large enough to hold the brain which at birth is 25% of the adult brain. By age 2, the brain is 75% of the adult brain weight.
Head circumferenceThis provides a rough idea of how the brain is growing. The head typically increases by 35% in the first year.
NeuronsThe brain's communication system includes these nerve cells. Billions in the nervous system.
DendritesReceive information from another neuron.
AxonA fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons.
Terminal buttonsEnds of terminals containing vesicles that contain and release chemicals—neurotransmitters—that send information along to other neurons.
SynapsesWhere neurons meet.
CortexThis part of the brain is crucial for humans. Most thinking, feeling, and sensing take place in this part of the brain.
Frontal cortexAssists in planning, self-control, and self-regulation. This part of the cortex is very immature in newborns.
Auditory cortexThis part of the cortex assists in hearing. Hearing is quite acute at birth due to eavesdropping in the womb.
Visual cortexThis part of the cortex assists in vision. Vision is the least mature sense at birth.
Shaken baby syndromeShaking a baby can lead to damage/death.
PURPLE cryingPeak of crying, unexpectedly, resistant to soothing, pain-like face, long-lasting, evening hours.
Transient exuberanceThe fivefold increase in dendrites in the cortex occurs in the 24 months after birth, with about 100 trillion synapses being present at age 2.
PruningUnused neurons and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die.
NeurogenesisGeneration of new neurons after birth.
NeuroplasticityBrain is modified/shaped by experience and in response to injury/damage.

Section 2

Question Answer
Stress and the brainThe brain produces cortisol and other hormones in response to stress. Early stress will lead to an atypical stress response in the brain later in life.
HypervigilantOver production of stress hormones.
Emotionally flatUnderproduction of stress hormones.
Experience-expectant functionsBrain functions that require certain basic common experiences, which almost all infants are “expected” to have. Thus, acquired easily/automatically (e.g., seeing, talking).
Sensitive periodsWhen development is most likely to happen or happens most readily.
Experience-dependent functionsBrain functions that “depend” on particular, variable experience and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant. Thus, acquired with effort (e.g., writing, playing the piano).
What should parents do for their infants to influence positive experiences?Caressing a newborn, talking to a preverbal infant, and showing affection toward the small infant. These are essential to developing a person's full potential.
Sensorimotor stageCognition develops from the senses and motor skills. Infant brain development depends on sensory experiences and early movement.
Brazelton Neonatal Assessment ScaleMeasures 28 behavioral and 18 reflex items of newborn behavior. This develops a "portrait" of strengths and vulnerabilities. Developmental tasks include: regulating breathing, temperature, and the rest of the autonomic system; infants strive to control their motor system, consciousness regulation, and interact socially.
What are the senses that function at birth?Open eyes, sensitive ears, and responsive noses, tongues, and skin.
Eyes-hand-mouth exploratory systemHow infants, until age 1, learn about their surroundings. They taste these objects.
SensationResponse to a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, and nose) when it detects a stimulus.
PerceptionThe brains mental processing (organization/interpretation) of sensory information.
HearingThis sense is well-developed at birth. Sudden noises startle newborns, but rhythmic sounds soothe them and help them fall asleep.
VisionThis sense is the least mature at birth. Newborns are "legally blind" and can only see objects that are 4-30 feet away. Double vision is prior to binocular vision.
Seeing at 2 monthsInfants look more intensely at faces and often smile.
Seeing at 3 monthsInfants look more closely at eyes and mouth.
PareidoliaRead significance into random/vague stimuli.
ProsopagnosiaFace blindness.
Fusiform Face AreaModule of brain that controls face recognition. (Role of nature)
Own-race effectBabies are more accurate at differentiating faces from their own ethnic group. This is due to limited multi ethnic experiences. (Role of nurture)
Taste, smell, and touchAt birth, the senses of taste, smell and touch function and rapidly adapt to the social world. Babies become aware of their caregiver's smell and touch.
What two goals does early sensation have?Social interaction (to respond to familiar caregivers) and comfort (to be soothed).

Section 3

Question Answer
Motor skillLearned ability to move some part of the body, from a large leap to a flicker of the eyelid.
ReflexAn involuntary response to a particular stimulus. Infants are born with dozen of reflexes including grasping, sucking, and stepping.
Gross motor skillsPhysical abilities involving large body movements.
Walking stagesReflexive, hesitant, adult-supported stepping and cruising, and smooth coordinated walk.
Three factors that allow toddlers to walk...Muscle strength, brain maturation, and practice/experience.
Fine motor skills Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers.
ImmunizationA process that stimulates the body’s immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease (immunization acquired either naturally, by having the disease, or though vaccination).
TdaP vaccine Vaccine to protect against tetanus (lockjaw), diphtheria (thick coating back of nose/throat difficult to breathe/swallow), and pertussis (whooping cough; need five doses).