Life-Span (Heredity and Environment)

breannurban's version from 2015-10-03 23:33

Section 1

Question Answer
GameteA reproductive cell (ovum or sperm) that produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex.
ZygoteThe single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes (a sperm and ovum).
Dizygotic twinsResults from two sperm penetrating two ova and share 50% of their genes. Referred to as fraternal twins.
Monozygotic twinsOriginate from one zygote. A single sperm fertilizes a single ovum, which then splits. These identical twins share 100% of their genes.
Twin studiesStudies of both monozygotic and dizygotic twins that were raised in the same home and raised separately in different homes. This is to study the combined and interactive effects of genes and environment on aspects of psychological functioning.
Adoption studiesStudy of adoptive siblings (reared in same home). Concern: Same home, but non shared environmental influences.
A cloneArtificial replication; take a cell from a living creature and create another genetically identical creature.
Therapeutic cloning Scientists use human embryos to clone stem cells for cell replacement therapy.
Reproductive cloningCreating a new human being.
Gene cloningA carefully regulated technique that is largely accepted today and used routinely in many labs worldwide.
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)General term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
In vitro fertilization Fertilization outside of the uterus—sperm directly inserted into an ovum.
ChromosomeA molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that contains the chemical instructions—genes—to make proteins.
GenesA section of chromosomes and the basic unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of a string of chemicals that code for the manufacture of certain proteins. Humans have approximately 20,500.
Chromosome amount...Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). The 23 pair is the sex chromosome that determines the genetic sex of the baby.The other two pairs are called autosomes.
GenomeEntire collection of human genes. The code for making a human being. Every person has a slightly different code, but the human genome is 99.9% the same for any 2 people.
GenotypeAn organism's entire genetic inheritance. It's a person's genetic potential.
PhenotypeThe observable physical and behavioral characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits that result from one’s genes, environment, and their interaction. (Outcome)
Genes are influenced by...Gene to gene interactions and gene to environment interactions (epigenetics)
PolygenicMany genes.

Section 2

Question Answer
Genes influence environmentEach child’s genes elicit other people’s responses, and these responses shape development. In other words, a child’s environment is partly the result of his or her genes.
Niche-pickingChildren, adolescents, and especially adults choose environments that are compatible with their genes.
Addiction (nature)Inherited biochemistry making people vulnerable to various addictions. Anyone can abuse drugs or alcohol, but genes create an addictive pull that can be overpowering, extremely weak, or somewhere in between.
Addiction (nurture)If alcohol is absent (e.g., rural Saudi Arabia) or forbidden (e.g., Church of Latter-Day Saints/Mormons; Seventh-Day Adventists), will be less likely to or won’t become addicted
MyopiaNearsightedness; a vision problem common in children. Nearsightedness is a symptom in more than 150 genetic syndromes.
Practical applicationKnowledge of gene and environment (nature-nurture) interactions can lead to environmental interventions when genetic vulnerability is present.
PhenylketonuriaA genetic condition in which there is a lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Phenylalanine builds up and results in brain damage. Treatment would be to have a diet that is extremely low in phenylalamine.
Chromosomal/Genetic AbnormalitiesThese can be caused by identifiable problems. Some people may have an extra chromosome or single gene.
Study of abnormalities can...This study is relevant to the study of development. It provides insight into the complexities of nature and nurture. Knowing the origins of these disease can help limit the effects. Information combats the stigma/prejudice that surrounds these problems.
Variable that correlates with chromosomal abnormalities...Age of the mother. There are problems with the aging ova that were formed early in the woman's life.
Down SyndromeA condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with three rather than two chromosomes at the 21st position.
Abnormalities of the 23rd pairMissing an X chromosome: an embryo cannot develop without an X chromosome. An odd number of X chromosomes (1 or 3) impairs cognition, psychosocial development, and sexual maturation.
Fragile X SyndromeA genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules.The cause is too many repetitions of a particular part of a gene’s code. Results in cognitive deficits (mental retardation).
Genetic Counseling and TestingConsultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive.
Affordable Care Act Prevents refusal of coverage because of pre-existing conditions, not simply genetic information.
Sporadic risk classificationMaybe one person in family with illness. This case is usually an individual case. Intervention would be to use standard prevention recommendations. This is the MOST COMMON classification.
Familial risk classification2-3 people in your family have the illness (spread out). The intervention would be personalized prevention recommendations (eg. breast scan).
Hereditary risk classificationThe illness is seen in multiple generations and appears to be passed down. The intervention would be to have personalized prevention recommendations and a genetic counseling appointment.

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