Life-Span (Development)

breannurban's version from 2015-10-02 04:55

Section 1

Question Answer
DevelopmentThe age-related physical, intellectual (cognitive), social, and personal (e.g., emotional, moral, personality, gender role) changes that occur throughout an individual’s lifetime.
Science of human development seeks...Understand why people (diverse) change over time.
DataQuestion of "what" is happening? Make
TheoriesAnswering the question of "why" something is happening.
Life-span perspectiveThe idea that development occurs at all stages of life. Different stages are associated with different developmental challenges. Development in one stage influences development in later stages.
Dynamic systems theoryThe theory that development is characterized by change and activity (dynamic). It stresses the fluctuations and transitions that occur while developing.
Goals of psychologyDescribe, explain, predict, and control.
ControlTo control phenomena of interest (behavior, thoughts, emotions). To control or influence phenomena of interest involves the application of knowledge acquired through the scientific study.
BiosocialPhysical body and motor skills.
CognitiveMental processes such as perception, memory, and language.
PsychosocialEmotions, temperament, personality, and social skills.
Three domains of developmentBiosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial.
Five characteristics of developmentMultidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic.

Section 2

Question Answer
MultidirectionalDevelopment changes in direction (dynamic). It is not static/fixed, or always liner (straight line).
MulticontextualHumans develop in many different contexts that profoundly affect their development. These include: physical surroundings, family patterns, historical context, and socioeconomic context.
Historical context (Corhort)People that are born within a few years of one another are more likely to be affected by the same values, events (9/11), technologies, and culture.
Ecological ModelThe belief that developmentalists need to examine all systems surrounding the development of each person. Includes microsystems, exosystems, and macrosystems. Less important systems include the chronosystem and mesosystem.
MicrosystemsA person's immediate surroundings. Includes family, classroom setting, religious group, and peer group.
ExosystemLocal institutions such as schools and churches.
MacrosystemsLarger social institutions including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes.
CultureThe patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next. This includes values, customs, clothes, dwellings, cuisine, and assumptions.
Multidisciplinary Many academic fields contribute data and insight to the science of development.
PlasticityWhen there is a problem with development, professionals can help improve the lives of the individuals. Provides hope (change is possible) and realism (each developing person must build on what has come before, so one must be realistic regarding how much change is possible).
What makes developmental science challenging?It is based on objective evidence, but laden with subjective values and perceptions.
Steps of scientific methodAsk a question, develop a testable hypothesis, test the hypothesis/make observations, interpret results/draw conclusions, and report the findings.
ReplicationImportance of repeatability of findings. Ideally, before report/publish results, but often do not attempt to replicate findings before publishing.

Section 3

Question Answer
Observational studyObserve and record behavior systematically and objectively. Occurs in naturalistic setting/laboratory and tries to be unobtrusive. Weak in determining cause and effect.
Case studyIntensive study of one (or a small group) individual or situation. Examines past history, current thinking and future plans. Weak in determining cause and effect.
Survey methodInformation is collected by a large number of people by interview, questionnaire, or some other means. Wording of questions can influence how someone answers.
Correlational studyIndicates the degree of predictive relationship between two variables.
Positive correlationWhen both variables tend to increase or decrease together.
Negative correlationIf one variable tends to increase while the other variable decreases.
ExperimentManipulating one variable (IV) to observe its effect on another variable (DV) while controlling for the possible influence of other variables on the DV (control/extraneous variables).
VariableAnything that can be measured and take on a range of values.
Independent variable Imposed treatment or special condition (what is manipulated).
Dependent variableSpecific behavior being studied (what is measured).
Experimental groupGiven specific treatment.
Control groupDoes not get specific treatment.
Comparison groupReceives treatment different than the experimental group.
Cross-sectional researchDifferent people of different ages tested at same point in time.
Longitudinal researchSame people tested at different times/ages.
Cross-sequential researchCombination of both cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods. Designed to first study several groups of different ages and then follow those groups over the years.
EthicsA set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow.
Cost/risk-benefit analysisFind balance between the research scientists’ desire to know and the right of research participants not to be harmed.

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