Life after Death

archiebw's version from 2016-06-14 21:35


Question Answer
What are three reasons for the importance of death? It is an unknown, it marks a parting with people we have loved, and for religious people it is a dawn of a new stage of life.
What is a phrase meaning 'after death'?'Post mortem'
To which ancient cultures can one trace the belief of life after death?China, India and the Middle East.
Name two famous dualists, and name a relevant quotation from one of them.Plato and Descartes and "I think therefore I am."
What are two strengths of dualism?We clearly do experience ourselves as separate from our bodies, and it explains accounts of out-of-body experiences.
What is a materialist?Someone who believes that everything that exists is material.
To Plato, what essentially is a person, and where does he write this?A soul imprisoned in a body, and 'Phaedo'.
How does Plato analogise the soul?As a chariot driver trying to direct two horses pulling in different directions which symbolise the mind and the body.
In what two ways does Plato describe the soul which seemingly contradict, in which work, and how can the soul be understood so they do not contradict?'Simple' and 'without parts' and 'complex', The 'Republic' and as a diamond.
What is a word that can be applied to a soul when it is inside a human body?'Incarnate'.
What are Plato's three aspects of the soul, and to what is this theory of three aspects referred?Reason, spirit and desire, and his tripartite theory of the soul.
Who gives a piece of evidence for different aspects of the soul, in what work, and what is it?Anthony Kenny, 'A Brief History of Western Philosophy' and a child throwing a tantrum.
According to Plato, from where does injustice come?Disharmony in the soul.
Why implicitly is stealing wrong, according to Plato?Parts of the soul are not working in harmony in this act and so this prevents one from seeing the truth.
What are Plato's two arguments in favour of the soul called, and in which work of his are they?The argument from knowledge and the argument from opposites, and 'Phaedo'.
Who makes the analogy of a tourist looking for a university to challenge René Descartes's theory on the soul, and what kind of mistake is the tourist making?Gilbert Ryle, and a 'categorical mistake'
What type of dualist is René Descartes, and what does this mean?A substance dualist, and he believes two types of substances exist: the mental and the physical.


Question Answer
Of what does 'the argument from knowledge' of the soul consist?Plato argues says we can understand if things are equal in size despite no-one having seen the Form of 'equals'.
Of what does 'the argument from opposites' of the soul consist? Plato argues the physical world consists of opposites mutually responsible for the other's existence, 'living' is a thing, death is its opposite so there must be such a thing as death.
Which type of people does Plato suggest will be reincarnated?People whose souls are bewitched by the passions and pleasures of the body.
Who criticises Plato's theory on the soul, what does he question and why?Peter Geach, what it means for the disembodied soul to know the Forms, and because seeing is a process linked to the body.
What criticisms can also be used as criticisms of Plato's theory of the soul?Criticisms of the theory of the Forms.


Question Answer
What were the three parts of Aristotle's soul, and with what were they concerned respectively?The logos, the thumos and the eros, and the mind, emotion and appetite.
What two parts of Aristotle's soul were labelled masculine and feminine, respectively?The thumos and the eros.
How does Aristotle analogise the interdependence of the soul and the body?He says the soul is like an imprint in wax.
What two things does Aristotle mean by suggesting the soul is the Form of the body?It gives form to the matter of the body, and it is the basis of activity of the body.
In what work did Aristotle write about the soul, and what is important to note about it?‘De Anima’, and its main concern is to explain plant and animal life.
What were Aristotle’s three hierarchical levels of natural beings?Plants, animals and humans.
What are the five faculties of the soul, according to Aristotle, in decreasing order of importance?Intellect, locomotion, desire, perception and nutrition.
Which writings did Aristotle’s argument of the distinction between the human and animal soul heavily influence?The Christian arguments of the Middle Ages.
By what has confusion been caused in Aristotle’s writings on the soul, and who accuses them as being ‘inconstant’?His suggestion that intellectual thought could possibly be separated after death, and Anthony Kenny.
Can a materialist believe in life after death?Yes.


Question Answer
Of what did one study consist which supported the claim that mental activity is fully explainable in terms of neurone activity?Using a scanner to detect successfully when people’s attention was focussed on certain images.
To which passage of the Bible does Dawkins allude relevant to his claim that we only survive after death in the sense of handing down our genes, and in which book of his?God’s covenant with Abraham in Genesis 17, and ‘Unweaving the Rainbow’
What does Dawkins call the body, showing his beliefs about its function?A ‘survival machine’ for genes.
To Dawkins, why do humans have consciousness?Because consciousness presents a survival advantage.
What is an example of a conscious entity triumphing over an unconscious entity?A human doctor and smallpox.
Who came up with replica theory?John Hick.


Question Answer
In what essay does Hick outline his Replica Theory?'Resurrection of the Person'
What does Hick call human beings in his starting point for the Replica Theory, and what does this mean?'Psycho-somatic unities', and that humans are an inseparable unity of a physical body and the mind or soul.
Who famously challenged philosophical dualism, in which work, and what is a phrase he used?Gilbert Ryle, 'The Concept of Mind' and "the ghost in the machine".
What four shared qualities would lead someone to reasonably identify a replica as the original person, according to Hick, and what is a quality that others would consider paramount?The same "consciousness, memory, emotion and volition", and physical continuity.
What have some philosophers suggested could be a problematic situation related to the Replica Theory? A situation in which there were found multiple replicas.
What are two puzzling questions one could ask concerning a replica in the afterlife, and what does Hick suggest in response to the latter?At what stage of life is it? Are terminal illnesses replicated? Healing of illnesses could take place in the new existence as a replica.


Question Answer
What is religious reductionism?Explaining religion by reducing it to non-religious causes.
What two things did Freud suggest religion was?An illusion, and an obsessional neurosis/mental illness.
Name three metaphors Marx gave for religion."The sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, [...] the opium of the people."


Question Answer
How do we know that Jesus was in some aspect changed after his resurrection?His followers do not recognise him.
Which question was asked which exposes a flaw in the idea of Jesus being resurrected, and who asked it?'Will they have to queue up to see Jesus?' and Peter Cole.
Who suggests that resurrection is the only meaningful way one can speak of life after death, in which work, and why?Peter Geach 'What Must Be True of Me if I Survive my Death?' and the link between the people on either side cannot be established.
Why does the Bible suggest Christians are dualistic, and where?It says at death a soul of a person is separated from his body and judged by God, and Ecclesiastes 12:7.
What is seeing God face to face in the afterlife called according to the Roman Catholic tradition?The 'beatific vision'
What is a weakness of the theory of hell?It does not encourage people to do the right thing for its own sake.
What is a problem raised by description of hell, and what are some outdated attempts to explain it?If it is a place of physical suffering, where is it? It is under the Earth or on the other side of the moon,
What are the two purposes St. Thomas Aquinas argues Hell serves?Divine justice, which is good for its own sake, and to make good people rejoice having realised they have escaped the sinners.
Whence does the image of the flames of Hell originate?The place in Gehenna, outside Jerusalem, where rubbish was burnt and pagan gods were worshiped.
What is contrition?The state of feeling remorseful and penitent.
Who says the idea of universal salvation was almost unheard of before modern times, and in which work?Richard Swinburne and 'Providence and the Problem of Evil'.
Who believed some people are intrinsically destined for a relationship with God, what was he and what is belief called?John Calvin, a sixteenth-century Protestant reformer and the Doctrine of Divine Election.
Which phrase is rejected by most Christian denominations, and as what does it translate?'Extra ecclesiam nulla salus', and 'outside the Church there is no salvation.'
Where did the rejection of the belief that you had to believe in God to be saved develop?Among Catholic missionaries disgusted by the treatment of Native Americans.
What is a really useful word meaning "relating to the part of theology concerned with death, judgement, and the final destiny of the soul and of humankind"?Eschatological.


Question Answer
Who claimed belief in eternal life stemmed from a fear of death?Ludwig Feuerbach.
What is an essay contesting the idea of life after death, who wrote it, and what was one of his points?'Can a Man Witness His Own Funeral?' Anthony Flew, and life and death were mutually exclusive categories. (read?)
As what does Bertrand Russell analogise memories and the brain?A river and its bed.
With whom does the Buddha have a discussion about the soul?His disciple Ananda.
In Buddhist terminology, what is the word for 'not-self'?'Anatta'
When could rebirth be said to occur, according to a Buddhist?Moment to moment.
Under what circumstance does Richard Swinburne reject reincarnation?When there is no continuity between the brain of the person at either side.
What thought experiment supports the existence of the soul, and who originated it?The 'floating man', and Avicenna.


Question Answer
What is the theory called which constitutes the belief it is better to believe in a God just in case there is an afterlife, and what is a weakness of it?Pascal’s Wager, and if God is omniscient he would know if someone believed solely for the sake of a good destiny.
What analogy does John Locke give in favour of the soul?The analogy of the prince and the cobbler.
As what do monists view emotions?Psycho-chemical reactions.
What story does Plato tell which explains a theory of what happens after death, what does its protagonists say happens after death. and what did it greatly influence?The Myth of Er, souls are rewarded and punished accordingly and can choose a new life before rebirth and religious thought.
What might be a flaw of Hick's Replica theory?It is based on deductive and not inductive reasoning.