Lesson 7 part 2

ajv09c's version from 2015-04-29 15:37

Section 1

Question Answer
cardiac connective tissue fibers composed ofelastic and collagen fibers; each cell is wrapped by elastic sheath, adjacent cells wrapped by collagen fibers
connective tissues and cardiac skeleton functionphysically support cardiac muscle fibers; distribute forces of contraction; add strength and prevent over expansion of heart; provide elasticity that helps return heart to original size and shape after contraction
cardiac skeleton consists offour bands around heart valves and bases of pulmonary trunk and aorta
cardiac skeleton functions tostabilize valves; electrically insulate ventricular cells from atrial cells

Section 2

Question Answer
heart disease akacoronary artery disease CAD
Coroanry artery disease isareas of partial or complete blockage of coronary circulation
cardiac muscle cells needa constant supply of oxygen and nutrients
reduction in blood flow to heart musclesproduces a corresponding reduction in cardiac performance
reduced circulatory supply results frompartial or complete blockage of coronary arteries; called coronary ischemia
heart disease- usual cause is formation of a fatty deposit (atherosclerotic plaque) in the wall of a coronary vessel
heart disease -fatty deposits build upplaque or a thrombus (clot) narrows the passageway and reduces blood flow
heart disease- spasmsin smooth muscle of vessel wall can further decrease or stop blood flow
heart disease- first signs of CADangina pectoris
angina pectoris isa temporary ischemia develops when the workload of the heart increases
angina pectoris- even though individual feels comfortable at rest exertion or emotional stress can produce a sensation of pressure, chest constriction and pain that may radiate from the sternal area to the arms, back, and neck
myocardial infarctionaka heart attack; part of the coronary circulation becomes blocked; and cardiac muscle cells die from lack of oxygen
myocardial infarction- cell death createsan infarct or a non functional area of tissue
myocardial infarction most commonly resultfrom severe coronary artery disease
myocardial infarction consequences depend on the site and nature of circulatory blockage; if it occurs near the start of coronary arteries damage will be widespread and heart may stop beating
myocardial infarction involving smaller arterial branchindividual may survive the immediate crisis but may ave many complications such as reduced contractility and cardiac arrhythmias
myocardial infarction crisis often develops asa result of thrombus formation at a plaque, called coronary thrombosis
myocardial infarction a vessel can become blocked whenit is already narrowed by plaque and has a sudden spasm in the smooth muscles of the vascular wall
myocardial infarction pain does not always accompany heart attack, thereforecondition may go undiagnosed and may not be treated before fatal mi occurs
myocardial infarction can usually be diagnosed withecg and blood studies
myocardial infarction- damaged myocardial cells releaseenzymes into the circulation; elevated enzymes can be measured in diagnostic blood tests
myocardial infarction- enzymes released by damaged myocardial cellscardiac troponin T; cardiac troponin I; speacial form of creatinine phosophokinase, CK-MB

Section 3

Question Answer
Treatment of CAD or MI- percent of MI patients die before obtaining medical assistance25%
Treatment of CAD or MI- percent of MI deaths amon those under age 50 occur within - after the initial infarction65 percent and one hour
treatment of CAD or MI- risk factor modifiers stop smoking, high blood pressure treatment; dietary modification to lower cholesterol and promote weight loss, stress reduction, increased physical activity
drug treatment of CAD or MI- drugs that reduce coagulation and thereforethrombosis; drugs such aspirin and coumadin
drug treatment of CAD or MI- drugs that block sympathetic stimulation; drugs are propranolol and metoprolol
drug treatment of CAD or MI- drugs that cause vasodilation, such as nitroglycerin
drug treatment of CAD or MI- drugs that block calcium movement into thecardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells; drugs are calcium channel blockers
drug treatment during MI-durgs to relieve pain, fibrinolytic agents to help dissolve clots, and oxygen
treatment of CAD or MI- types of noninvasive surgeryatherectomy, balloon angioplasty
atherectomy blockage by a single, soft plaque may be reduced with the aid of a long, slender catheter inserted into a coronary artery to the plaque
balloon angioplastytip of catheter contains inflatable balloon; once in position, balloon is inflated, pressing the plaque against the vessel walls and a is inserted
CABGcoronary artery bypass graft
in a CABG, small section is removed fromsmall artery or a peripheral vein; is used to create a detour around the obstructed portion of a coronary artery
in a CABG, as many as - can be -4 coronary arteries can be rerouted during a single operation
procedure named according tonumber of vessels repaired; aka three would be triple coronary bypass