Lesson 20 reproductive system

ajv09c's version from 2015-04-30 19:48

Section 1

Question Answer
Reproductive system is the only systemNot essential to the life of the individual; also does not affect other systems
male and female reproductive organs produce and store specialized reproductive cells that combine to form new individuals
reproductive organs secretehormones that play major roles in the maintenance of normal sexual function
Reproductive structures gonads, ducts, accessory glands, perineal structures
gonads are organs that produce gametes and hormones
ductsreceive and transport gametes
accessory glandssecrete fluids into ducts
perineal structurescollectively known as external genitalia

Section 2

Question Answer
The reproductive tract includesall chambers and passageways that connect ducts to exterior of body
Male and Female reproductive systems are functionallydifferent
Females produces ? gametes one gamete per month
Females retain and nurturezygote- formed after fertilization
Males produce ? gameteslarge quantities; 1/2 billion sperm per day

Section 3

Question Answer
Testes secretemale sex hormones (androgens)
Testes produceMale gametes (spermatozoa or sperm)
Male Accessory organssecrete fluids into ejaculatory ducts and urethra
Name different male accessory organsseminal gland; prostate gland; bulbo-urethral gland
Pathway of spermatozoatestis>epididymis>vas deferens>ejaculatory duct>urethra
Male external genitaliapenis; scrotum
peniserectile organ contains distal portion of urethra
scrotumencloses testes; has 2 chambers (scrotal cavities); each testies lies in separate scrotal chamber; contains the raphe
raphe raised thickening in scrotal surface; marks partition of 2 scrotal chambers

Section 4

Question Answer
testes characteristicsegg shaped; 5cm long x 3cm wide x 2.5cm thick; weights 10-15g; hang in scrotum
Descent of the testesgubernaculum testis stays constant; as fetus grows relative position of testis shifts
accessory structures during descentaccompany testis during descent; form body of spermatic cord
accessory structures that form spermatic cordductus deferens; testicular blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels

Section 5

Question Answer
dartos musclelayer of smooth muscle in dermis of scrotum; resting muscle tone causes wrinkling of scrotal surface; elevates testes
cremaster musclelayer of skeletal muscle deep to dermis; can contract or relax to move scrotum; tenses scrotum and pulls testes closer to body- occurs during temperature regulation and sexual arousal
temperature for normal sperm development in testes1.1degC temp. lower than body temp
spermatic cords extendbetween abdominopelvic cavity and testes
spermatic cords layersfascia and muscle
spermatic cords enclosevans deferens; blood vessels; nerves; lymphatic vessels of testes
spermatic cords pass throughthe inguinal canal
inguinal canal arepassageways through abdominal musculature; form during development as testes descend into scrotum
cryptochidismdisorder where testes do not descend into scrotum, remain in abdomen; can cause testicular cancer, sterility; must be surgically corrected before puberty to produce viable sperm
male inguinal herniasprotrusions of visceral tissues into inguinal canal; spermatic cord causes weak point in abdominal wall
male inguinal hernias common in males and not females becausefemale inguinal cans are very small; they contain only ilioinguinal nerves and round ligaments of uterus
tunica vaginalisserous membrane; lines scrotal cavity; reduces friction between opposing surfaces
surfaces that oppose each other in scrotumpariteal (scrotal) and visceral (testicular)
tunica albugineadeep to tunica vaginalis; dense layer of connective tissue rich in collagen fibers; continuous with fibers surrounding epididymis; fibers extend into testis and form fibrous partitions (septa) that converge near epididymis; supports blood and lymphatic vessels of testis and efferent ductules